Effect of different electrode tip angles with tilted torch in stationary gas tungsten arc welding: A 3D simulation

Muhammad Abid, Shahid Parvez, David Nash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
578 Downloads (Pure)


In this study, the effect of different tip angles (30°, 60°, 90° and 120°) on the arc and weld pool behaviour is analysed in 2mm and 5mm arc lengths with tilted (70°) torch. Arc temperature, velocity, current density, heat flux and gas shear are investigated in the arc region and pool convection and puddle shapes are studied in the weld pool region. The arc temperature at the tungsten electrode is found the maximum with sharp tip and decreases as the tip angle increases. The arc temperature on the anode (workpiece) surface becomes concentrated with increase in tip angle. The arc velocity and gas shear stress are observed large with sharp tip and decreasing as the tip angle increases. Current density on the anode surface does not change with tip angle and observed almost the same in all the tip angles in both 2mm and 5mm arc lengths. Heat flux due to conduction and convection is observed more sensitive to the tip angle and decreases as the tip angle increases. The electromagnetic force is slightly observed increasing and the buoyancy force is observed slightly decreasing with increase in tip angle. Analysing each driving force in the weld pool individually shows that the gas drag and Marangoni forces are much stronger than the electromagnetic and buoyancy forces. The weld pool shape is observed wide and shallow in sharp and narrow and deep in large tip angle. Increasing the arc length does not change the weld pool width; however, the weld pool depth significantly changes with arc length and is observed deep in short arc length. The arc properties and weld pool shapes are observed wide ahead of the electrode tip in the weld direction due to 70° torch angle. Good agreement is observed between the numerical and experimental weld pool shapes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-60
JournalInternational Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013
Event13th International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology - London, United Kingdom
Duration: 20 May 201223 May 2012


  • Gas tungsten arc welding
  • welding simulation
  • tip angle
  • electrode tip
  • weld pool
  • heat and fluid flow


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