Effect of applied field and rate of voltage rise on surface breakdown of oil-immersed polymers

Mark P. Wilson, Igor V. Timoshkin, Martin J. Given, Scott J. MacGregor, Mark A. Sinclair, Ken J. Thomas, Jane M. Lehr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In sub-systems of high-voltage, pulsed-power machines, the introduction of a solid into bulk liquid insulation located between two conductors is often necessary to provide mechanical support. Breakdown events on or around the surface of the solid can result in permanent damage to the insulation system. Described in the present paper are experimental results pertaining to surface breakdown of five different solid dielectrics held between plane-parallel electrodes immersed in mineral oil. The effect of varying level of peak applied field from 200 kV/cm (dV/dt 70 kV/µs) to 1 MV/cm (dV/dt 350 kV/µs) is investigated, and the breakdown voltages and times to breakdown are compared to those for an open oil gap. The time to breakdown is shown to be reduced by the introduction of a solid spacer into the gap. Rexolite and Torlon samples suffered significant mechanical damage, and consistently showed lower breakdown voltage than the other materials - average streamer propagation velocity up to 125 km/s was implied by the short times to breakdown. Although ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene yielded the longest times to breakdown of the five types of liquid-solid gap, breakdown events could be initiated at lower levels of applied field for spacers of this material than those with permittivity closely matched to that of the surrounding mineral oil. Polypropylene and low-density polyethylene are concluded to provide the most stable performance in mineral oil. Due to the similarity of the applied voltage wave-shape (1/6.5 µs) to short-tail lightning impulses, the results may also be of interest to high-voltage system designers in the power industry.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1003-1010
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Volume18
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2011

Fingerprint

Mineral oils
Electric potential
Polymers
Electric breakdown
Insulation
Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes
Liquids
Low density polyethylenes
Lightning
Polypropylenes
Permittivity
Oils
Electrodes
Industry

Keywords

  • dielectric breakdown
  • flashover
  • oil insulation
  • plastic insulation
  • pulse power systems
  • solids

Cite this

@article{28ba7888ac0d41f0b8eb71f41cc1fc3d,
title = "Effect of applied field and rate of voltage rise on surface breakdown of oil-immersed polymers",
abstract = "In sub-systems of high-voltage, pulsed-power machines, the introduction of a solid into bulk liquid insulation located between two conductors is often necessary to provide mechanical support. Breakdown events on or around the surface of the solid can result in permanent damage to the insulation system. Described in the present paper are experimental results pertaining to surface breakdown of five different solid dielectrics held between plane-parallel electrodes immersed in mineral oil. The effect of varying level of peak applied field from 200 kV/cm (dV/dt 70 kV/µs) to 1 MV/cm (dV/dt 350 kV/µs) is investigated, and the breakdown voltages and times to breakdown are compared to those for an open oil gap. The time to breakdown is shown to be reduced by the introduction of a solid spacer into the gap. Rexolite and Torlon samples suffered significant mechanical damage, and consistently showed lower breakdown voltage than the other materials - average streamer propagation velocity up to 125 km/s was implied by the short times to breakdown. Although ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene yielded the longest times to breakdown of the five types of liquid-solid gap, breakdown events could be initiated at lower levels of applied field for spacers of this material than those with permittivity closely matched to that of the surrounding mineral oil. Polypropylene and low-density polyethylene are concluded to provide the most stable performance in mineral oil. Due to the similarity of the applied voltage wave-shape (1/6.5 µs) to short-tail lightning impulses, the results may also be of interest to high-voltage system designers in the power industry.",
keywords = "dielectric breakdown, flashover, oil insulation, plastic insulation, pulse power systems, solids",
author = "Wilson, {Mark P.} and Timoshkin, {Igor V.} and Given, {Martin J.} and MacGregor, {Scott J.} and Sinclair, {Mark A.} and Thomas, {Ken J.} and Lehr, {Jane M.}",
note = "(c) 2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works.",
year = "2011",
month = "8",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1109/TDEI.2011.5976088",
language = "English",
volume = "18",
pages = "1003--1010",
journal = "IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation",
issn = "1070-9878",
number = "4",

}

Effect of applied field and rate of voltage rise on surface breakdown of oil-immersed polymers. / Wilson, Mark P.; Timoshkin, Igor V.; Given, Martin J.; MacGregor, Scott J.; Sinclair, Mark A.; Thomas, Ken J.; Lehr, Jane M.

In: IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 18, No. 4, 05.08.2011, p. 1003-1010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of applied field and rate of voltage rise on surface breakdown of oil-immersed polymers

AU - Wilson, Mark P.

AU - Timoshkin, Igor V.

AU - Given, Martin J.

AU - MacGregor, Scott J.

AU - Sinclair, Mark A.

AU - Thomas, Ken J.

AU - Lehr, Jane M.

N1 - (c) 2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works.

PY - 2011/8/5

Y1 - 2011/8/5

N2 - In sub-systems of high-voltage, pulsed-power machines, the introduction of a solid into bulk liquid insulation located between two conductors is often necessary to provide mechanical support. Breakdown events on or around the surface of the solid can result in permanent damage to the insulation system. Described in the present paper are experimental results pertaining to surface breakdown of five different solid dielectrics held between plane-parallel electrodes immersed in mineral oil. The effect of varying level of peak applied field from 200 kV/cm (dV/dt 70 kV/µs) to 1 MV/cm (dV/dt 350 kV/µs) is investigated, and the breakdown voltages and times to breakdown are compared to those for an open oil gap. The time to breakdown is shown to be reduced by the introduction of a solid spacer into the gap. Rexolite and Torlon samples suffered significant mechanical damage, and consistently showed lower breakdown voltage than the other materials - average streamer propagation velocity up to 125 km/s was implied by the short times to breakdown. Although ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene yielded the longest times to breakdown of the five types of liquid-solid gap, breakdown events could be initiated at lower levels of applied field for spacers of this material than those with permittivity closely matched to that of the surrounding mineral oil. Polypropylene and low-density polyethylene are concluded to provide the most stable performance in mineral oil. Due to the similarity of the applied voltage wave-shape (1/6.5 µs) to short-tail lightning impulses, the results may also be of interest to high-voltage system designers in the power industry.

AB - In sub-systems of high-voltage, pulsed-power machines, the introduction of a solid into bulk liquid insulation located between two conductors is often necessary to provide mechanical support. Breakdown events on or around the surface of the solid can result in permanent damage to the insulation system. Described in the present paper are experimental results pertaining to surface breakdown of five different solid dielectrics held between plane-parallel electrodes immersed in mineral oil. The effect of varying level of peak applied field from 200 kV/cm (dV/dt 70 kV/µs) to 1 MV/cm (dV/dt 350 kV/µs) is investigated, and the breakdown voltages and times to breakdown are compared to those for an open oil gap. The time to breakdown is shown to be reduced by the introduction of a solid spacer into the gap. Rexolite and Torlon samples suffered significant mechanical damage, and consistently showed lower breakdown voltage than the other materials - average streamer propagation velocity up to 125 km/s was implied by the short times to breakdown. Although ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene yielded the longest times to breakdown of the five types of liquid-solid gap, breakdown events could be initiated at lower levels of applied field for spacers of this material than those with permittivity closely matched to that of the surrounding mineral oil. Polypropylene and low-density polyethylene are concluded to provide the most stable performance in mineral oil. Due to the similarity of the applied voltage wave-shape (1/6.5 µs) to short-tail lightning impulses, the results may also be of interest to high-voltage system designers in the power industry.

KW - dielectric breakdown

KW - flashover

KW - oil insulation

KW - plastic insulation

KW - pulse power systems

KW - solids

U2 - 10.1109/TDEI.2011.5976088

DO - 10.1109/TDEI.2011.5976088

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 1003

EP - 1010

JO - IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation

T2 - IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation

JF - IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation

SN - 1070-9878

IS - 4

ER -