The dynamic fracture behavior of brittle materials that contain micro-level cracks should be examined when material subjected to impact loading. We investigated the effect of micro-cracks on the propagation of macro-cracks that initiate from notch tips in the Kalthoff-Winkler experiment, a classical impact problem. To define predefined micro-cracks in three-dimensional space, we proposed a two-dimensional micro-crack plane definition in the bond-based peridynamics (PD) that is a non-local form of classical continuum theory. Randomly distributed micro-cracks with different number densities in a constant area and number in expending area models were examined to monitor the toughening of the material. The velocities of macro-crack propagation and the time required for completing fractures were considered in several predefined micro-cracks cases. It has been observed that toughening mechanism is only initiated by exceeding a certain number of micro-cracks; therefore, there is a positive correlation between the density of predefined micro-cracks and macro-crack propagation rate and, also, toughening mechanism.
- crack initiation