Dye-free retinal angiography using blood-oxygenation modulation

L.E. MacKenzie, T.R. Choudhary, J. Fernandez Ramos, N. Benjamin, C. Delles, A.R. Harvey

Research output: Working paperWorking Paper/Preprint

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Fluorescence angiography (FA) is widely used for studying and diagnosing abnormalities in the retinal blood circulation, but has associated risks of nausea, skin irritation, and even death. We describe a new non-invasive angiography technique: Blood Oxygenation Modulation Angiography, in which multispectral imaging of a transient perturbation in blood-oxygen saturation, yields angiography sequences similar to FA, including key features such as sequential filling of choroidal and retinal-vessels, which underpin assessment of circulation health. This is the first non-invasive angiography technique capable of visualizing these circulation features.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationNew York
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2018


  • fluorescence angiography
  • retinal blood circulation
  • blood-oxygen saturation


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