Double gaussianization of graph spectra

Alhanouf Alhomaidhi, Fawzi Al-Thukair, Ernesto Estrada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The graph spectrum is the set of eigenvalues of a simple graph with n vertices. Here we fold this graph spectrum at a given pair of reference eigenvalues and then exponentiate the resulting folded graph spectrum. This process produces double Gaussianized functions of the graph adjacency matrix which give more importance to the reference eigenvalues than to the rest of the spectrum. Based on evidences from mathematical chemistry we focus here our attention on the reference eigenvalues ±1. In the examples that we have examined, they enclose most of the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of organic molecular graphs. We prove here several results for the trace of the double Gaussianized adjacency matrix of simple graphs–the double Gaussianized Estrada index. Finally we apply this index to the classification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as carcinogenic or inactive ones. We discover that local indices based on the previously developed matrix function allow to classify correctly 100% of the PAHs analyzed. Such indices reflect the electron population of the HOMO/LUMO and eigenvalues close to them, in the so-called K and L regions of PAHs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)134-147
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Mathematical Modelling
Early online date30 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - 31 May 2021


  • matrix functions
  • mathematical chemistry
  • polycyclic aromatic compounds
  • graph spectra
  • eigenvalues
  • HOMO and LUMO


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