Divided in diversity: reforming the EU's GMO regime

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This article analyses the recent reform to the EU’s genetically modified organisms (GMO) regime which allows Member States to restrict the cultivation of GMO on their territory for reasons that do not relate to issues of health and safety or the environment. By allowing for national differentiation – although on legally questionable grounds – new Article 26b of Directive 2001/18/EC has been presented as a solution to overcome the impasse in GMO decision-making. However, this article finds that the reform fails to provide a solution for the EU regime’s most pressing problem, namely its disregard for scientific uncertainty and disagreement.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages25
JournalCambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 Jan 2016


  • GMO
  • genetically modified organisms
  • cultivation
  • risk regulation
  • WTO
  • internal markets
  • legal opt-outs
  • EFSA

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