Distribution and determinants of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures in Bangladesh

Rashidul Alam Mahumud, Abdur Razzaque Sarker, Marufa Sultana, Ziaul Islam, Jahangir Khan, Alec Morton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives:
Like many low and middle income countries, out-of-pocket payments by patients or their families are a key healthcare financing mechanism in Bangladesh that leads to economic burden of household. The objective of the study was to focus whether and to what extent socio-economic, demographic and behavioral factors of the population have impact on OOP expenditure in Bangladesh.
Method:
A total of 12,400 patients who spent for receiving any type of healthcare services were analyzed from Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey data, 2010. We employed a regression analysis for find out the factors influencing OOP health expenditure using ordinary least square method.
Results:
The mean total out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure was US$ 27.66; while cost of medicines (US$ 16.98) was the highest cost driver. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors influencing higher out-of-pocket health expenditure, namely, age, sex, marital status, place of residence, rich families. In contrary, unemployed and with no social financial safety were inversely associated.
Conclusions:
Findings of the study can help the decision makers by stating the determinants of OOP, discussing the mechanisms driving them and thus underscoring the need to develop policy options for the building stronger financial protection mechanisms. The government should consider devoting more resources to providing free or subsidized care. Parallel to government action, the development of other prudential and sustainable risk pooling mechanism and so may be most enthusiastic subscribers to community-based health insurance schemes.
LanguageEnglish
Pages91-99
JournalJournal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
Volume50
Issue number2
Early online date7 Feb 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2017

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Bangladesh
Health Expenditures
Delivery of Health Care
Economics
Healthcare Financing
Costs and Cost Analysis
Marital Status
Health Insurance
Expenditure
Healthcare
Least-Squares Analysis
Regression Analysis
Demography
Safety
Health expenditures
Influencing factors
Government
Population

Keywords

  • Bangladesh
  • household income
  • household expenditure
  • healthcare expenditure
  • out-of-pocket
  • socio-economic
  • demographic
  • behavioural factors
  • risk pooling mechanism
  • social financial safety
  • GDP per capita

Cite this

Mahumud, Rashidul Alam ; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque ; Sultana, Marufa ; Islam, Ziaul ; Khan, Jahangir ; Morton, Alec. / Distribution and determinants of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures in Bangladesh. In: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. 2017 ; Vol. 50, No. 2. pp. 91-99.
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Distribution and determinants of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures in Bangladesh. / Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sultana, Marufa; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Jahangir; Morton, Alec.

In: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Vol. 50, No. 2, 03.2017, p. 91-99.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Mahumud, Rashidul Alam

AU - Sarker, Abdur Razzaque

AU - Sultana, Marufa

AU - Islam, Ziaul

AU - Khan, Jahangir

AU - Morton, Alec

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N2 - Objectives:Like many low and middle income countries, out-of-pocket payments by patients or their families are a key healthcare financing mechanism in Bangladesh that leads to economic burden of household. The objective of the study was to focus whether and to what extent socio-economic, demographic and behavioral factors of the population have impact on OOP expenditure in Bangladesh.Method:A total of 12,400 patients who spent for receiving any type of healthcare services were analyzed from Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey data, 2010. We employed a regression analysis for find out the factors influencing OOP health expenditure using ordinary least square method.Results:The mean total out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure was US$ 27.66; while cost of medicines (US$ 16.98) was the highest cost driver. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors influencing higher out-of-pocket health expenditure, namely, age, sex, marital status, place of residence, rich families. In contrary, unemployed and with no social financial safety were inversely associated.Conclusions:Findings of the study can help the decision makers by stating the determinants of OOP, discussing the mechanisms driving them and thus underscoring the need to develop policy options for the building stronger financial protection mechanisms. The government should consider devoting more resources to providing free or subsidized care. Parallel to government action, the development of other prudential and sustainable risk pooling mechanism and so may be most enthusiastic subscribers to community-based health insurance schemes.

AB - Objectives:Like many low and middle income countries, out-of-pocket payments by patients or their families are a key healthcare financing mechanism in Bangladesh that leads to economic burden of household. The objective of the study was to focus whether and to what extent socio-economic, demographic and behavioral factors of the population have impact on OOP expenditure in Bangladesh.Method:A total of 12,400 patients who spent for receiving any type of healthcare services were analyzed from Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey data, 2010. We employed a regression analysis for find out the factors influencing OOP health expenditure using ordinary least square method.Results:The mean total out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure was US$ 27.66; while cost of medicines (US$ 16.98) was the highest cost driver. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors influencing higher out-of-pocket health expenditure, namely, age, sex, marital status, place of residence, rich families. In contrary, unemployed and with no social financial safety were inversely associated.Conclusions:Findings of the study can help the decision makers by stating the determinants of OOP, discussing the mechanisms driving them and thus underscoring the need to develop policy options for the building stronger financial protection mechanisms. The government should consider devoting more resources to providing free or subsidized care. Parallel to government action, the development of other prudential and sustainable risk pooling mechanism and so may be most enthusiastic subscribers to community-based health insurance schemes.

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