Birgit Schippers, CH Powell, Irena Barkane, Oscar Puccinelli, Jukka Viljanen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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Scholars, governments and commentators are using a multiplicity of terms to describe the phenomenon of disinformation. This report uses the term 'disinformation' broadly: we are treating it as an online phenomenon encapsulating the elements of the 'deliberate creation and sharing of false and/or manipulated information', 'designed, presented and promoted to intentionally cause public harm or for profit'. This conception excludes two related phenomena: these are, first, the spread of false or malicious information offline; and, second, the spread of unintentionally false or inaccurate information, which is better described as misinformation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpecific Threats to Human Rights Protection from the Digital Reality
Subtitle of host publicationInternational Responses and Recommendations to Core Threats from the Digitalised World
EditorsTiina Pajuste
Place of PublicationTallinn
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2022


  • disinformation
  • False information
  • fake news
  • malinformation
  • digital human rights


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