Discrete loading of the foot during hurdle drills: a pilot investigation

C. Ingram, S.R. Urry, S.C. Wearing, J.E. Smeathers, J. Manning

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Lower limb function in hurdling is patently asymmetrical. The lead limb undertakes the preparatory and landing steps while the trail limb contends with the hurdle and recovery steps. Discrete loading profiles of these steps will reflect the asymmetrical function and may provide useful insight into injury mechanisms. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the loading profiles of the hurdle, landing and recovery steps of elite male hurdlers. Equivalent data for steps between hurdles, where the running action is more symmetrical, were used for the purpose of comparison, simultaneously minimising the confounding effect of speed. In-shoe pressures were recorded (FScan, 200Hz) for four elite male hurdlers while they completed a routine hurdle drill at a self-selected fast but sub-race speed. The drill comprised of three consecutive hurdles. Data for the hurdle, landing and recovery steps of the first and second hurdles, along with data for the running steps between hurdles 1 and 2, and 2 and 3, were used for the purpose of analysis. Peak pressures within 1cm2 masks were determined for the hallux, first, central and fifth metatarsals (T1, M1, M2-4 and M5 respectively). Peak pressure (kPa) and loading duration (ms) for the hurdle, landing and recovery steps are reported as a percentage of the respective limb-matched values for between-hurdle steps. For between-hurdle steps, T1, M1 and M2-4 peak pressures were 312/357, 356/306 and 362/368 kPa, lead/trail limbs respectively. For the hurdle, landing and recovery steps, pressures at T1 and M1 increased. For T1 the increases were in the order of 17%, 36% and 8% (hurdle, landing and recovery steps, respectively) while the corresponding increases at M1 were 7%, 54% and 20%. Pressures at M2-4 were similar for all steps, while M5 loaded erratically. For the between-hurdle steps, the loading durations at T1, M1 and M2-4, were 160/162, 170/142 and 190/191 ms, respectively. For the landing step, loading duration decreased for T1, M1and M2-4 (-8%, -19% and -18%, respectively). In the hurdle step, loading duration decreased for the metatarsals but not for T1. The hurdling action leads to regional pressure increases that act for shorter durations in comparison to the between-hurdle running steps. These changes are most notable at the first metatarsal, a common site of foot injury.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pagese108
    JournalJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport
    Volume12
    Issue numberSupplement 2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

    Fingerprint

    Mandrillus
    Foot
    Pressure
    Metatarsal Bones
    Extremities
    Running
    Foot Injuries
    Hallux
    Shoes
    Masks
    Lower Extremity
    Wounds and Injuries

    Keywords

    • discrete loading
    • foot
    • hurdle drills
    • bioengineering

    Cite this

    Ingram, C., Urry, S. R., Wearing, S. C., Smeathers, J. E., & Manning, J. (2009). Discrete loading of the foot during hurdle drills: a pilot investigation. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(Supplement 2), e108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2009.10.221
    Ingram, C. ; Urry, S.R. ; Wearing, S.C. ; Smeathers, J.E. ; Manning, J. / Discrete loading of the foot during hurdle drills: a pilot investigation. In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2009 ; Vol. 12, No. Supplement 2. pp. e108.
    @article{2317a6df233a49548198a50a4f07784a,
    title = "Discrete loading of the foot during hurdle drills: a pilot investigation",
    abstract = "Lower limb function in hurdling is patently asymmetrical. The lead limb undertakes the preparatory and landing steps while the trail limb contends with the hurdle and recovery steps. Discrete loading profiles of these steps will reflect the asymmetrical function and may provide useful insight into injury mechanisms. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the loading profiles of the hurdle, landing and recovery steps of elite male hurdlers. Equivalent data for steps between hurdles, where the running action is more symmetrical, were used for the purpose of comparison, simultaneously minimising the confounding effect of speed. In-shoe pressures were recorded (FScan, 200Hz) for four elite male hurdlers while they completed a routine hurdle drill at a self-selected fast but sub-race speed. The drill comprised of three consecutive hurdles. Data for the hurdle, landing and recovery steps of the first and second hurdles, along with data for the running steps between hurdles 1 and 2, and 2 and 3, were used for the purpose of analysis. Peak pressures within 1cm2 masks were determined for the hallux, first, central and fifth metatarsals (T1, M1, M2-4 and M5 respectively). Peak pressure (kPa) and loading duration (ms) for the hurdle, landing and recovery steps are reported as a percentage of the respective limb-matched values for between-hurdle steps. For between-hurdle steps, T1, M1 and M2-4 peak pressures were 312/357, 356/306 and 362/368 kPa, lead/trail limbs respectively. For the hurdle, landing and recovery steps, pressures at T1 and M1 increased. For T1 the increases were in the order of 17{\%}, 36{\%} and 8{\%} (hurdle, landing and recovery steps, respectively) while the corresponding increases at M1 were 7{\%}, 54{\%} and 20{\%}. Pressures at M2-4 were similar for all steps, while M5 loaded erratically. For the between-hurdle steps, the loading durations at T1, M1 and M2-4, were 160/162, 170/142 and 190/191 ms, respectively. For the landing step, loading duration decreased for T1, M1and M2-4 (-8{\%}, -19{\%} and -18{\%}, respectively). In the hurdle step, loading duration decreased for the metatarsals but not for T1. The hurdling action leads to regional pressure increases that act for shorter durations in comparison to the between-hurdle running steps. These changes are most notable at the first metatarsal, a common site of foot injury.",
    keywords = "discrete loading, foot, hurdle drills, bioengineering",
    author = "C. Ingram and S.R. Urry and S.C. Wearing and J.E. Smeathers and J. Manning",
    note = "2009 Australia Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, Seventh National Physical Activity Conference, Sixth National Sports Injury Prevention Conference, Be Active '09.",
    year = "2009",
    doi = "10.1016/j.jsams.2009.10.221",
    language = "English",
    volume = "12",
    pages = "e108",
    journal = "Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport",
    issn = "1440-2440",
    number = "Supplement 2",

    }

    Ingram, C, Urry, SR, Wearing, SC, Smeathers, JE & Manning, J 2009, 'Discrete loading of the foot during hurdle drills: a pilot investigation' Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 12, no. Supplement 2, pp. e108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2009.10.221

    Discrete loading of the foot during hurdle drills: a pilot investigation. / Ingram, C.; Urry, S.R.; Wearing, S.C.; Smeathers, J.E.; Manning, J.

    In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Vol. 12, No. Supplement 2, 2009, p. e108.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Discrete loading of the foot during hurdle drills: a pilot investigation

    AU - Ingram, C.

    AU - Urry, S.R.

    AU - Wearing, S.C.

    AU - Smeathers, J.E.

    AU - Manning, J.

    N1 - 2009 Australia Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, Seventh National Physical Activity Conference, Sixth National Sports Injury Prevention Conference, Be Active '09.

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - Lower limb function in hurdling is patently asymmetrical. The lead limb undertakes the preparatory and landing steps while the trail limb contends with the hurdle and recovery steps. Discrete loading profiles of these steps will reflect the asymmetrical function and may provide useful insight into injury mechanisms. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the loading profiles of the hurdle, landing and recovery steps of elite male hurdlers. Equivalent data for steps between hurdles, where the running action is more symmetrical, were used for the purpose of comparison, simultaneously minimising the confounding effect of speed. In-shoe pressures were recorded (FScan, 200Hz) for four elite male hurdlers while they completed a routine hurdle drill at a self-selected fast but sub-race speed. The drill comprised of three consecutive hurdles. Data for the hurdle, landing and recovery steps of the first and second hurdles, along with data for the running steps between hurdles 1 and 2, and 2 and 3, were used for the purpose of analysis. Peak pressures within 1cm2 masks were determined for the hallux, first, central and fifth metatarsals (T1, M1, M2-4 and M5 respectively). Peak pressure (kPa) and loading duration (ms) for the hurdle, landing and recovery steps are reported as a percentage of the respective limb-matched values for between-hurdle steps. For between-hurdle steps, T1, M1 and M2-4 peak pressures were 312/357, 356/306 and 362/368 kPa, lead/trail limbs respectively. For the hurdle, landing and recovery steps, pressures at T1 and M1 increased. For T1 the increases were in the order of 17%, 36% and 8% (hurdle, landing and recovery steps, respectively) while the corresponding increases at M1 were 7%, 54% and 20%. Pressures at M2-4 were similar for all steps, while M5 loaded erratically. For the between-hurdle steps, the loading durations at T1, M1 and M2-4, were 160/162, 170/142 and 190/191 ms, respectively. For the landing step, loading duration decreased for T1, M1and M2-4 (-8%, -19% and -18%, respectively). In the hurdle step, loading duration decreased for the metatarsals but not for T1. The hurdling action leads to regional pressure increases that act for shorter durations in comparison to the between-hurdle running steps. These changes are most notable at the first metatarsal, a common site of foot injury.

    AB - Lower limb function in hurdling is patently asymmetrical. The lead limb undertakes the preparatory and landing steps while the trail limb contends with the hurdle and recovery steps. Discrete loading profiles of these steps will reflect the asymmetrical function and may provide useful insight into injury mechanisms. A pilot study was undertaken to determine the loading profiles of the hurdle, landing and recovery steps of elite male hurdlers. Equivalent data for steps between hurdles, where the running action is more symmetrical, were used for the purpose of comparison, simultaneously minimising the confounding effect of speed. In-shoe pressures were recorded (FScan, 200Hz) for four elite male hurdlers while they completed a routine hurdle drill at a self-selected fast but sub-race speed. The drill comprised of three consecutive hurdles. Data for the hurdle, landing and recovery steps of the first and second hurdles, along with data for the running steps between hurdles 1 and 2, and 2 and 3, were used for the purpose of analysis. Peak pressures within 1cm2 masks were determined for the hallux, first, central and fifth metatarsals (T1, M1, M2-4 and M5 respectively). Peak pressure (kPa) and loading duration (ms) for the hurdle, landing and recovery steps are reported as a percentage of the respective limb-matched values for between-hurdle steps. For between-hurdle steps, T1, M1 and M2-4 peak pressures were 312/357, 356/306 and 362/368 kPa, lead/trail limbs respectively. For the hurdle, landing and recovery steps, pressures at T1 and M1 increased. For T1 the increases were in the order of 17%, 36% and 8% (hurdle, landing and recovery steps, respectively) while the corresponding increases at M1 were 7%, 54% and 20%. Pressures at M2-4 were similar for all steps, while M5 loaded erratically. For the between-hurdle steps, the loading durations at T1, M1 and M2-4, were 160/162, 170/142 and 190/191 ms, respectively. For the landing step, loading duration decreased for T1, M1and M2-4 (-8%, -19% and -18%, respectively). In the hurdle step, loading duration decreased for the metatarsals but not for T1. The hurdling action leads to regional pressure increases that act for shorter durations in comparison to the between-hurdle running steps. These changes are most notable at the first metatarsal, a common site of foot injury.

    KW - discrete loading

    KW - foot

    KW - hurdle drills

    KW - bioengineering

    UR - http://www.jsams.org/

    UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2009.10.221

    U2 - 10.1016/j.jsams.2009.10.221

    DO - 10.1016/j.jsams.2009.10.221

    M3 - Article

    VL - 12

    SP - e108

    JO - Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

    T2 - Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

    JF - Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

    SN - 1440-2440

    IS - Supplement 2

    ER -