The widespread use of point of care testing in biomedical and clinical applications is a major aim of the electrochemical field. A large number of groups are working on lab-on-a-chip systems or sensor arrays which are underpinned by electrochemical detection methodologies. Miniaturized transducers have the potential to be adopted in such systems for diagnosis of a range of diseases in both clinical and nonclinical settings. In this review, we will present the current trends and state of the art for a selection of miniaturized sensing elements (microelectrodes, nanoelectrodes, and field-effect transistors) and provide an impression of current technologies, their associated performance characteristics, and also considering the major barriers to adoption and how they might be surmounted in future so these technologies can fulfil their early promise.
- field-effect transistors