Development of process induced residual stress during flow forming of tubular 15-5 martensitic stainless steel

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

Abstract

Flow forming is a near net shape process for manufacturing of dimensionally accurate hollow components such as shaft in gas turbines, that is currently at its development stage for aerospace industry. The process has several advantages such as reducing material wastage, extremely fast manufacturing time, and eliminating extra manufacturing processes such as machining. Due to the nature of this complicated cold deformation process, significant magnitude of residual stress is introduced into the component. Understanding the magnitude and distribution of residual stress is essential to tailor the flow forming process to achieve parts within dimensional tolerances and desired mechanical properties. The present research is aiming to explore the generation and evolution of residual stress at various stages of flow forming process in a tubular component made from martensitic 15Cr-5Ni stainless steel, using different techniques of neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and hole-drilling based on electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI).
Residual stress measurements were carried out in pre-formed and flow formed components at surface, near-surface and in the bulk of components using XRD, ESPI based hole-drilling and neutron diffraction techniques. These measurements were conducted at different levels of reduction in the thickness of the original part (i.e. after 20% and 40%), by applying identical forming parameters for all samples. The XRD results show significant change in hoop and axial residual stress levels with a reduction in the wall thickness. This is more pronounced for the axial component where the average stress switches from relatively high tensile (~ 450MPa) in the original part to significant compressive stress (~ -600MPa) in the formed part, after 20% of reduction. The bulk residual stress components measured in the middle of thickness of the parts, using neutron scattering, show a general increase in the magnitude of residual stress by higher level of deformation (i.e. reduction in the wall thickness). The measured bulk stress components through the thickness were tuned to tensile after reducing the wall thickness by 40%. The results of XRD and neutron diffraction stress measurements suggest that the residual stress along the length of the samples (i.e. axial direction) is consistent with ±800 MPa and ±400 MPa after 20% and 40% reduction by forming process, respectively.
The results of ESPI based hole-drilling show tensile hoop residual stress (≈600 MPa) and an abrupt fluctuation (i.e. tension-compressive-tension) in the axial residual stress near the surface of the part following flow forming. The stresses measured by ESPI based hole-drilling are complementary to the results of the XRD on surface and neutron diffraction in the bulk to reconstruct the residual stress profile form the surface through to the bulk.

Conference

ConferenceASME Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference 2017
Abbreviated titleASME PVP
CountryUnited States
CityWaikoloa, Hawaii
Period16/07/1720/07/17
Internet address

Fingerprint

Martensitic stainless steel
Residual stresses
Speckle
Interferometry
Diffraction
Drilling
X rays
Neutron diffraction
Stress measurement
Neutron scattering
Aerospace industry
Compressive stress
Tensile stress
Gas turbines
Machining
Stainless steel

Keywords

  • residual stress
  • flow forming
  • steel
  • incremental bulk deformation
  • neutron diffraction
  • XRD
  • ESPI

Cite this

Khayatzadeh, S., Moturu, S. R., Kelleher, J. F., & Rahimi, S. (2017). Development of process induced residual stress during flow forming of tubular 15-5 martensitic stainless steel. V06AT06A016. Paper presented at ASME Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference 2017, Waikoloa, Hawaii, United States. https://doi.org/10.1115/PVP2017-65806
Khayatzadeh, Saber ; Moturu, Shanmukha Rao ; Kelleher, Joe F. ; Rahimi, Salah. / Development of process induced residual stress during flow forming of tubular 15-5 martensitic stainless steel. Paper presented at ASME Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference 2017, Waikoloa, Hawaii, United States.10 p.
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abstract = "Flow forming is a near net shape process for manufacturing of dimensionally accurate hollow components such as shaft in gas turbines, that is currently at its development stage for aerospace industry. The process has several advantages such as reducing material wastage, extremely fast manufacturing time, and eliminating extra manufacturing processes such as machining. Due to the nature of this complicated cold deformation process, significant magnitude of residual stress is introduced into the component. Understanding the magnitude and distribution of residual stress is essential to tailor the flow forming process to achieve parts within dimensional tolerances and desired mechanical properties. The present research is aiming to explore the generation and evolution of residual stress at various stages of flow forming process in a tubular component made from martensitic 15Cr-5Ni stainless steel, using different techniques of neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and hole-drilling based on electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). Residual stress measurements were carried out in pre-formed and flow formed components at surface, near-surface and in the bulk of components using XRD, ESPI based hole-drilling and neutron diffraction techniques. These measurements were conducted at different levels of reduction in the thickness of the original part (i.e. after 20{\%} and 40{\%}), by applying identical forming parameters for all samples. The XRD results show significant change in hoop and axial residual stress levels with a reduction in the wall thickness. This is more pronounced for the axial component where the average stress switches from relatively high tensile (~ 450MPa) in the original part to significant compressive stress (~ -600MPa) in the formed part, after 20{\%} of reduction. The bulk residual stress components measured in the middle of thickness of the parts, using neutron scattering, show a general increase in the magnitude of residual stress by higher level of deformation (i.e. reduction in the wall thickness). The measured bulk stress components through the thickness were tuned to tensile after reducing the wall thickness by 40{\%}. The results of XRD and neutron diffraction stress measurements suggest that the residual stress along the length of the samples (i.e. axial direction) is consistent with ±800 MPa and ±400 MPa after 20{\%} and 40{\%} reduction by forming process, respectively.The results of ESPI based hole-drilling show tensile hoop residual stress (≈600 MPa) and an abrupt fluctuation (i.e. tension-compressive-tension) in the axial residual stress near the surface of the part following flow forming. The stresses measured by ESPI based hole-drilling are complementary to the results of the XRD on surface and neutron diffraction in the bulk to reconstruct the residual stress profile form the surface through to the bulk.",
keywords = "residual stress, flow forming, steel, incremental bulk deformation, neutron diffraction, XRD, ESPI",
author = "Saber Khayatzadeh and Moturu, {Shanmukha Rao} and Kelleher, {Joe F.} and Salah Rahimi",
note = "(c) ASME - Published in ASME Proceedings. Volume 6A: Materials and Fabrication; ASME Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference 2017, ASME PVP ; Conference date: 16-07-2017 Through 20-07-2017",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
day = "16",
doi = "10.1115/PVP2017-65806",
language = "English",
pages = "V06AT06A016",
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Khayatzadeh, S, Moturu, SR, Kelleher, JF & Rahimi, S 2017, 'Development of process induced residual stress during flow forming of tubular 15-5 martensitic stainless steel' Paper presented at ASME Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference 2017, Waikoloa, Hawaii, United States, 16/07/17 - 20/07/17, pp. V06AT06A016. https://doi.org/10.1115/PVP2017-65806

Development of process induced residual stress during flow forming of tubular 15-5 martensitic stainless steel. / Khayatzadeh, Saber; Moturu, Shanmukha Rao; Kelleher, Joe F.; Rahimi, Salah.

2017. V06AT06A016 Paper presented at ASME Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference 2017, Waikoloa, Hawaii, United States.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - Development of process induced residual stress during flow forming of tubular 15-5 martensitic stainless steel

AU - Khayatzadeh, Saber

AU - Moturu, Shanmukha Rao

AU - Kelleher, Joe F.

AU - Rahimi, Salah

N1 - (c) ASME - Published in ASME Proceedings. Volume 6A: Materials and Fabrication

PY - 2017/7/16

Y1 - 2017/7/16

N2 - Flow forming is a near net shape process for manufacturing of dimensionally accurate hollow components such as shaft in gas turbines, that is currently at its development stage for aerospace industry. The process has several advantages such as reducing material wastage, extremely fast manufacturing time, and eliminating extra manufacturing processes such as machining. Due to the nature of this complicated cold deformation process, significant magnitude of residual stress is introduced into the component. Understanding the magnitude and distribution of residual stress is essential to tailor the flow forming process to achieve parts within dimensional tolerances and desired mechanical properties. The present research is aiming to explore the generation and evolution of residual stress at various stages of flow forming process in a tubular component made from martensitic 15Cr-5Ni stainless steel, using different techniques of neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and hole-drilling based on electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). Residual stress measurements were carried out in pre-formed and flow formed components at surface, near-surface and in the bulk of components using XRD, ESPI based hole-drilling and neutron diffraction techniques. These measurements were conducted at different levels of reduction in the thickness of the original part (i.e. after 20% and 40%), by applying identical forming parameters for all samples. The XRD results show significant change in hoop and axial residual stress levels with a reduction in the wall thickness. This is more pronounced for the axial component where the average stress switches from relatively high tensile (~ 450MPa) in the original part to significant compressive stress (~ -600MPa) in the formed part, after 20% of reduction. The bulk residual stress components measured in the middle of thickness of the parts, using neutron scattering, show a general increase in the magnitude of residual stress by higher level of deformation (i.e. reduction in the wall thickness). The measured bulk stress components through the thickness were tuned to tensile after reducing the wall thickness by 40%. The results of XRD and neutron diffraction stress measurements suggest that the residual stress along the length of the samples (i.e. axial direction) is consistent with ±800 MPa and ±400 MPa after 20% and 40% reduction by forming process, respectively.The results of ESPI based hole-drilling show tensile hoop residual stress (≈600 MPa) and an abrupt fluctuation (i.e. tension-compressive-tension) in the axial residual stress near the surface of the part following flow forming. The stresses measured by ESPI based hole-drilling are complementary to the results of the XRD on surface and neutron diffraction in the bulk to reconstruct the residual stress profile form the surface through to the bulk.

AB - Flow forming is a near net shape process for manufacturing of dimensionally accurate hollow components such as shaft in gas turbines, that is currently at its development stage for aerospace industry. The process has several advantages such as reducing material wastage, extremely fast manufacturing time, and eliminating extra manufacturing processes such as machining. Due to the nature of this complicated cold deformation process, significant magnitude of residual stress is introduced into the component. Understanding the magnitude and distribution of residual stress is essential to tailor the flow forming process to achieve parts within dimensional tolerances and desired mechanical properties. The present research is aiming to explore the generation and evolution of residual stress at various stages of flow forming process in a tubular component made from martensitic 15Cr-5Ni stainless steel, using different techniques of neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and hole-drilling based on electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). Residual stress measurements were carried out in pre-formed and flow formed components at surface, near-surface and in the bulk of components using XRD, ESPI based hole-drilling and neutron diffraction techniques. These measurements were conducted at different levels of reduction in the thickness of the original part (i.e. after 20% and 40%), by applying identical forming parameters for all samples. The XRD results show significant change in hoop and axial residual stress levels with a reduction in the wall thickness. This is more pronounced for the axial component where the average stress switches from relatively high tensile (~ 450MPa) in the original part to significant compressive stress (~ -600MPa) in the formed part, after 20% of reduction. The bulk residual stress components measured in the middle of thickness of the parts, using neutron scattering, show a general increase in the magnitude of residual stress by higher level of deformation (i.e. reduction in the wall thickness). The measured bulk stress components through the thickness were tuned to tensile after reducing the wall thickness by 40%. The results of XRD and neutron diffraction stress measurements suggest that the residual stress along the length of the samples (i.e. axial direction) is consistent with ±800 MPa and ±400 MPa after 20% and 40% reduction by forming process, respectively.The results of ESPI based hole-drilling show tensile hoop residual stress (≈600 MPa) and an abrupt fluctuation (i.e. tension-compressive-tension) in the axial residual stress near the surface of the part following flow forming. The stresses measured by ESPI based hole-drilling are complementary to the results of the XRD on surface and neutron diffraction in the bulk to reconstruct the residual stress profile form the surface through to the bulk.

KW - residual stress

KW - flow forming

KW - steel

KW - incremental bulk deformation

KW - neutron diffraction

KW - XRD

KW - ESPI

UR - https://www.asme.org/events/pvp

U2 - 10.1115/PVP2017-65806

DO - 10.1115/PVP2017-65806

M3 - Paper

SP - V06AT06A016

ER -

Khayatzadeh S, Moturu SR, Kelleher JF, Rahimi S. Development of process induced residual stress during flow forming of tubular 15-5 martensitic stainless steel. 2017. Paper presented at ASME Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference 2017, Waikoloa, Hawaii, United States. https://doi.org/10.1115/PVP2017-65806