Development of a process envelope for friction stir welding of DH36 steel: a step change

Athanasios Toumpis, Alexander Galloway, Stephen Cater, Norman McPherson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)
201 Downloads (Pure)


Friction stir welding of steel presents an array of advantages across many industrial sectors compared to conventional fusion welding techniques. However, the fundamental knowledge of the friction stir welding process in relation to steel remains relatively limited. A microstructure and property evaluation of friction stir welded low alloy steel grade DH36 plate, commonly used in ship and marine applications has been undertaken. In this comprehensive study, plates of 2000 x 200 x 6 mm were butt welded together at varying rotational and traverse speeds. Samples were examined microscopically and by transverse tensile tests. In addition, the work was complemented by Charpy impact testing and micro-hardness testing in various regions of the weld. The study examined a wide range of process parameters; from this, a preliminary process parameter envelope has been developed and initial process parameter sets established that produce commercially attractive excellent quality welds through a substantial increase in the conventionally recognised weld traverse speed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)64-75
Number of pages12
JournalMaterials and Design
Early online date9 May 2014
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2014


  • friction stir welding
  • optimisation
  • DH36 steel


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