Development of a pediatric relative bioavailability/bioequivalence database and identification of putative risk factors associated with evaluation of pediatric oral products

Gopal Pawar, Fang Wu, Liang Zhao, Lanyan Fang, Gilbert J. Burckhart, Kairui Feng, Youssef M. Mousa, Franci Neuman, Hannah K. Batchelor

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Generally, bioequivalence (BE) studies of drug products for pediatric patients are conducted in adults due to ethical reasons. Given the lack of direct BE assessment in pediatric populations, the aim of this work is to develop a database of BE and relative bioavailability (relative BA) studies conducted in pediatric populations and to enable the identification of risk factors associated with certain drug substances or products that may lead to failed BE or different pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in relative BA studies in pediatrics. A literature search from 1965 to 2020 was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar to identify BE studies conducted in pediatric populations and relative BA studies conducted in pediatric populations. Overall, 79 studies covering 37 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were included in the database: 4 bioequivalence studies with data that passed BE evaluations; 2 studies showed bioinequivalence results; 34 relative BA studies showing comparable PK parameters, and 39 relative BA studies showing differences in PK parameters between test and reference products. Based on the above studies, common putative risk factors associated with differences in relative bioavailability (DRBA) in pediatric populations include age-related absorption effects, high inter-individual variability, and poor study design. A database containing 79 clinical studies on BE or relative BA in pediatrics has been developed. Putative risk factors associated with DRBA in pediatric populations are summarized.

Original languageEnglish
Article number57
Number of pages12
JournalAAPS Journal
Publication statusPublished - 21 Apr 2021


  • drug absorption
  • pediatric formulations
  • pharmacurtical dosages

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