Deterministic planning in the fifth international planning competition: pddl3 and experimental evaluation of the planners

A.E. Gerevini, P. Haslum, D. Long, A. Saetti, Y. Dimopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

177 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The international planning competition (IPC) is an important driver for planning research. The general goals of the IPC include pushing the state of the art in planning technology by posing new scientific challenges, encouraging direct comparison of planning systems and techniques, developing and improving a common planning domain definition language, and designing new planning domains and problems for the research community. This paper focuses on the deterministic part of the fifth international planning competition (IPC5), presenting the language and benchmark domains that we developed for the competition, as well as a detailed experimental evaluation of the deterministic planners that entered IPC5, which helps to understand the state of the art in the field. We present an extension of pddl, called pddl3, allowing the user to express strong and soft constraints about the structure of the desired plans, as well as strong and soft problem goals. We discuss the expressive power of the new language focusing on the restricted version that was used in IPC5, for which we give some basic results about its compilability into pddl2. Moreover, we study the relative performance of the IPC5 planners in terms of solved problems, CPU time, and plan quality; we analyse their behaviour with respect to the winners of the previous competition; and we evaluate them in terms of their capability of dealing with soft goals and constraints, and of finding good quality plans in general. Overall, the results indicate significant progress in the field, but they also reveal that some important issues remain open and require further research, such as dealing with strong constraints and computing high quality plans in metric-time domains and domains involving soft goals or constraints.
LanguageEnglish
Pages619-668
Number of pages49
JournalArtificial Intelligence
Volume173
Issue number5-6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2009

Fingerprint

Planning
planning
evaluation
language
planning research
Evaluation
Program processors
driver
community
performance
Language
time

Keywords

  • automated planning
  • planning systems
  • PDDL
  • planning languages
  • knowledge representation in planning
  • Preferences in planning
  • Plan constraints
  • International planning competition
  • Benchmarks for planning
  • Experimental evaluation of planning
  • systems

Cite this

Gerevini, A.E. ; Haslum, P. ; Long, D. ; Saetti, A. ; Dimopoulos, Y. / Deterministic planning in the fifth international planning competition: pddl3 and experimental evaluation of the planners. In: Artificial Intelligence. 2009 ; Vol. 173, No. 5-6. pp. 619-668.
@article{729f4261b5fc4a9188a711a70377802e,
title = "Deterministic planning in the fifth international planning competition: pddl3 and experimental evaluation of the planners",
abstract = "The international planning competition (IPC) is an important driver for planning research. The general goals of the IPC include pushing the state of the art in planning technology by posing new scientific challenges, encouraging direct comparison of planning systems and techniques, developing and improving a common planning domain definition language, and designing new planning domains and problems for the research community. This paper focuses on the deterministic part of the fifth international planning competition (IPC5), presenting the language and benchmark domains that we developed for the competition, as well as a detailed experimental evaluation of the deterministic planners that entered IPC5, which helps to understand the state of the art in the field. We present an extension of pddl, called pddl3, allowing the user to express strong and soft constraints about the structure of the desired plans, as well as strong and soft problem goals. We discuss the expressive power of the new language focusing on the restricted version that was used in IPC5, for which we give some basic results about its compilability into pddl2. Moreover, we study the relative performance of the IPC5 planners in terms of solved problems, CPU time, and plan quality; we analyse their behaviour with respect to the winners of the previous competition; and we evaluate them in terms of their capability of dealing with soft goals and constraints, and of finding good quality plans in general. Overall, the results indicate significant progress in the field, but they also reveal that some important issues remain open and require further research, such as dealing with strong constraints and computing high quality plans in metric-time domains and domains involving soft goals or constraints.",
keywords = "automated planning, planning systems, PDDL, planning languages, knowledge representation in planning, Preferences in planning, Plan constraints, International planning competition, Benchmarks for planning, Experimental evaluation of planning, systems",
author = "A.E. Gerevini and P. Haslum and D. Long and A. Saetti and Y. Dimopoulos",
year = "2009",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.artint.2008.10.012",
language = "English",
volume = "173",
pages = "619--668",
journal = "Artificial Intelligence",
issn = "0004-3702",
number = "5-6",

}

Deterministic planning in the fifth international planning competition: pddl3 and experimental evaluation of the planners. / Gerevini, A.E.; Haslum, P.; Long, D.; Saetti, A.; Dimopoulos, Y.

In: Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 173, No. 5-6, 04.2009, p. 619-668.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Deterministic planning in the fifth international planning competition: pddl3 and experimental evaluation of the planners

AU - Gerevini, A.E.

AU - Haslum, P.

AU - Long, D.

AU - Saetti, A.

AU - Dimopoulos, Y.

PY - 2009/4

Y1 - 2009/4

N2 - The international planning competition (IPC) is an important driver for planning research. The general goals of the IPC include pushing the state of the art in planning technology by posing new scientific challenges, encouraging direct comparison of planning systems and techniques, developing and improving a common planning domain definition language, and designing new planning domains and problems for the research community. This paper focuses on the deterministic part of the fifth international planning competition (IPC5), presenting the language and benchmark domains that we developed for the competition, as well as a detailed experimental evaluation of the deterministic planners that entered IPC5, which helps to understand the state of the art in the field. We present an extension of pddl, called pddl3, allowing the user to express strong and soft constraints about the structure of the desired plans, as well as strong and soft problem goals. We discuss the expressive power of the new language focusing on the restricted version that was used in IPC5, for which we give some basic results about its compilability into pddl2. Moreover, we study the relative performance of the IPC5 planners in terms of solved problems, CPU time, and plan quality; we analyse their behaviour with respect to the winners of the previous competition; and we evaluate them in terms of their capability of dealing with soft goals and constraints, and of finding good quality plans in general. Overall, the results indicate significant progress in the field, but they also reveal that some important issues remain open and require further research, such as dealing with strong constraints and computing high quality plans in metric-time domains and domains involving soft goals or constraints.

AB - The international planning competition (IPC) is an important driver for planning research. The general goals of the IPC include pushing the state of the art in planning technology by posing new scientific challenges, encouraging direct comparison of planning systems and techniques, developing and improving a common planning domain definition language, and designing new planning domains and problems for the research community. This paper focuses on the deterministic part of the fifth international planning competition (IPC5), presenting the language and benchmark domains that we developed for the competition, as well as a detailed experimental evaluation of the deterministic planners that entered IPC5, which helps to understand the state of the art in the field. We present an extension of pddl, called pddl3, allowing the user to express strong and soft constraints about the structure of the desired plans, as well as strong and soft problem goals. We discuss the expressive power of the new language focusing on the restricted version that was used in IPC5, for which we give some basic results about its compilability into pddl2. Moreover, we study the relative performance of the IPC5 planners in terms of solved problems, CPU time, and plan quality; we analyse their behaviour with respect to the winners of the previous competition; and we evaluate them in terms of their capability of dealing with soft goals and constraints, and of finding good quality plans in general. Overall, the results indicate significant progress in the field, but they also reveal that some important issues remain open and require further research, such as dealing with strong constraints and computing high quality plans in metric-time domains and domains involving soft goals or constraints.

KW - automated planning

KW - planning systems

KW - PDDL

KW - planning languages

KW - knowledge representation in planning

KW - Preferences in planning

KW - Plan constraints

KW - International planning competition

KW - Benchmarks for planning

KW - Experimental evaluation of planning

KW - systems

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artint.2008.10.012

U2 - 10.1016/j.artint.2008.10.012

DO - 10.1016/j.artint.2008.10.012

M3 - Article

VL - 173

SP - 619

EP - 668

JO - Artificial Intelligence

T2 - Artificial Intelligence

JF - Artificial Intelligence

SN - 0004-3702

IS - 5-6

ER -