Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres

Allyson C. McIntyre, Madeleine L. Bilyk, Alison Nordon, Gary Colquhoun, David Littlejohn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two methods of analysis were developed to permit detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using a novel attenuated total reflectance (ATR) diamond-tipped immersion probe for mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry. The first method allowed determination of the ethanol concentration (35-45% (v/v)) in situ without dilution of the samples; the results obtained compared well with the supplied concentrations (average relative error of 1.2% and 0.8% for univariate and multivariate partial least squares (PLS) calibration, respectively). The second method involved analysis of dried residues of the whisky samples and caramel solutions on the diamond ATR crystal; principal component analysis (PCA) of the spectra was used to classify the samples and investigate the colorant added. Seventeen test whisky samples were successfully categorised as either authentic or counterfeit in a blind study when both MIR methods were used.

LanguageEnglish
Pages228-233
Number of pages6
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Volume690
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2011

Fingerprint

Silver halides
Diamond
halide
Silver
Spectrometry
spectrometry
silver
Spectrum Analysis
reflectance
probe
Infrared radiation
diamond
Fibers
Principal component analysis
Dilution
Ethanol
Calibration
Crystals
ethanol
principal component analysis

Keywords

  • attenuated total reflectance immersion probe
  • mid-infrared spectrometry
  • polycrystalline silver halide fibres
  • in situ analysis
  • whisky authentication
  • principal component analysis
  • near infrared spectrometry
  • Process analytical technology
  • alcoholic beverages
  • MID-IR
  • authenticity
  • flow injection
  • raman spectrometries
  • quality control
  • ethanol

Cite this

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title = "Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres",
abstract = "Two methods of analysis were developed to permit detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using a novel attenuated total reflectance (ATR) diamond-tipped immersion probe for mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry. The first method allowed determination of the ethanol concentration (35-45{\%} (v/v)) in situ without dilution of the samples; the results obtained compared well with the supplied concentrations (average relative error of 1.2{\%} and 0.8{\%} for univariate and multivariate partial least squares (PLS) calibration, respectively). The second method involved analysis of dried residues of the whisky samples and caramel solutions on the diamond ATR crystal; principal component analysis (PCA) of the spectra was used to classify the samples and investigate the colorant added. Seventeen test whisky samples were successfully categorised as either authentic or counterfeit in a blind study when both MIR methods were used.",
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Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres. / McIntyre, Allyson C.; Bilyk, Madeleine L.; Nordon, Alison; Colquhoun, Gary; Littlejohn, David.

In: Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 690, No. 2, 01.04.2011, p. 228-233.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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