Design of a 1-THz fourth-harmonic gyrotron driven by axis-encircling electron beam

Fan-Hong Li, Chao-Hai Du, Zi-Wen Zhang, Si-Qi Li, Zi-Chao Gao, Pu-Kun Liu, Guo-Wu Ma, Qi-Li Huang, Hong-Ge Ma, Liang Zhang, Adrian W. Cross

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In this article, the design of a fourth-harmonic gyrotron with 1-kW-level output power at 1 terahertz (THz) is presented. A unique advantage of this design is that, with a well-optimized magnetic-cusp large-orbit electron gun, the designed gyrotron can operate from first-harmonic to fourth-harmonic in multiple discrete bands by varying the confining magnetic field strength. By carefully balancing the competing modes, the gyrotron can be tuned to operate at six candidate modes, including TE1,2 for fundamental harmonic, TE2,3 and TE2,4 for second-harmonic, TE3,5 and TE3,6 for third-harmonic, and TE4,8 for fourth-harmonic interactions. As the main operating mode, the TE4,8 can generate a peak output power of 1.68 kW, with an output efficiency of about 2.1%, and a magnetically controlled frequency tuning range of about 1.5 GHz around 1 THz. The impact of the longitudinal nonuniformity of the cavity at high-harmonic interaction was also studied. It shows that a radial tolerance of several micrometers will significantly elevate the start-oscillation current and deteriorate output performance. This design is to produce a THz source with ultra-wideband tuning capability ranging from the submillimeter-wave to 1-THz bands.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3393-3399
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number6
Early online date3 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • broad-range magnetic tuning
  • high-harmonic terahertz (THz) gyrotron
  • multimode switching
  • gyrotrons
  • harmonic analysis
  • surface roughness
  • surface impedance
  • superconducting materials
  • rough surfaces
  • tuning


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