The density matrix in the Lindblad form is used to describe the behavior of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) operating in a quantum regime. The detrimental effects of the spontaneous emission on coherent FEL operation are taken into account. It is shown that the density matrix formalism provides a simple method to describe the dynamics of electrons and radiation field in the quantum FEL process. In this work, further insights on the key dynamic parameters (e.g., electron populations, bunching factor, radiation power) are presented. We also derive a simple differential equation that describes the evolution of the radiated power in the linear regime. It is confirmed that the essential results of this work agree with those predicted by a discrete Wigner approach at practical conditions for efficient operation of quantum FELs.
|Journal||Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment|
|Early online date||20 Mar 2018|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 20 Mar 2018|
- free electron laser
- quantum free electron laser