Delivery of antimicrobials into parasites

B.U. Samuel, B. Hearn, D. Mack, P. Wender, J. Rothbard, M.J. Kirisits, E. Mui, S. Wernimont, C.W. Roberts, S.P. Muench, D.W. Rice, S.T. Prigge, A.B. Law, R. McLeod

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To eliminate apicomplexan parasites, inhibitory compounds must cross host cell, parasitophorous vacuole, and parasite membranes and cyst walls, making delivery challenging. Here, we show that short oligomers of arginine enter Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and encysted bradyzoites. Triclosan, which inhibits enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR), conjugated to arginine oligomers enters extracellular tachyzoites, host cells, tachyzoites inside parasitophorous vacuoles within host cells, extracellular bradyzoites, and bradyzoites within cysts. We identify, clone, and sequence T. gondii enr and produce and characterize enzymatically active, recombinant ENR. This enzyme has the requisite amino acids to bind triclosan. Triclosan released after conjugation to octaarginine via a readily hydrolyzable ester linkage inhibits ENR activity, tachyzoites in vitro, and tachyzoites in mice. Delivery of an inhibitor to a microorganism via conjugation to octaarginine provides an approach to transporting antimicrobials and other small molecules to sequestered parasites, a model system to characterize transport across multiple membrane barriers and structures, a widely applicable paradigm for treatment of active and encysted apicomplexan and other infections, and a generic proof of principle for a mechanism of medicine delivery.
LanguageEnglish
Pages14281-14286
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Volume100
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Nov 2003

Fingerprint

Triclosan
Oxidoreductases
Parasites
Toxoplasma
Vacuoles
Arginine
Cysts
Membranes
Esters
Clone Cells
Medicine
Amino Acids
Enzymes
Infection
octaarginine

Keywords

  • antimicrobials
  • apicomplexan parasites
  • triclosan
  • enoyl-ACP reductase

Cite this

Samuel, B. U., Hearn, B., Mack, D., Wender, P., Rothbard, J., Kirisits, M. J., ... McLeod, R. (2003). Delivery of antimicrobials into parasites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 100(24), 14281-14286. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2436169100
Samuel, B.U. ; Hearn, B. ; Mack, D. ; Wender, P. ; Rothbard, J. ; Kirisits, M.J. ; Mui, E. ; Wernimont, S. ; Roberts, C.W. ; Muench, S.P. ; Rice, D.W. ; Prigge, S.T. ; Law, A.B. ; McLeod, R. / Delivery of antimicrobials into parasites. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . 2003 ; Vol. 100, No. 24. pp. 14281-14286.
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Samuel, BU, Hearn, B, Mack, D, Wender, P, Rothbard, J, Kirisits, MJ, Mui, E, Wernimont, S, Roberts, CW, Muench, SP, Rice, DW, Prigge, ST, Law, AB & McLeod, R 2003, 'Delivery of antimicrobials into parasites' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , vol. 100, no. 24, pp. 14281-14286. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2436169100

Delivery of antimicrobials into parasites. / Samuel, B.U.; Hearn, B.; Mack, D.; Wender, P.; Rothbard, J.; Kirisits, M.J.; Mui, E.; Wernimont, S.; Roberts, C.W.; Muench, S.P.; Rice, D.W.; Prigge, S.T.; Law, A.B.; McLeod, R.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , Vol. 100, No. 24, 25.11.2003, p. 14281-14286.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Delivery of antimicrobials into parasites

AU - Samuel, B.U.

AU - Hearn, B.

AU - Mack, D.

AU - Wender, P.

AU - Rothbard, J.

AU - Kirisits, M.J.

AU - Mui, E.

AU - Wernimont, S.

AU - Roberts, C.W.

AU - Muench, S.P.

AU - Rice, D.W.

AU - Prigge, S.T.

AU - Law, A.B.

AU - McLeod, R.

PY - 2003/11/25

Y1 - 2003/11/25

N2 - To eliminate apicomplexan parasites, inhibitory compounds must cross host cell, parasitophorous vacuole, and parasite membranes and cyst walls, making delivery challenging. Here, we show that short oligomers of arginine enter Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and encysted bradyzoites. Triclosan, which inhibits enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR), conjugated to arginine oligomers enters extracellular tachyzoites, host cells, tachyzoites inside parasitophorous vacuoles within host cells, extracellular bradyzoites, and bradyzoites within cysts. We identify, clone, and sequence T. gondii enr and produce and characterize enzymatically active, recombinant ENR. This enzyme has the requisite amino acids to bind triclosan. Triclosan released after conjugation to octaarginine via a readily hydrolyzable ester linkage inhibits ENR activity, tachyzoites in vitro, and tachyzoites in mice. Delivery of an inhibitor to a microorganism via conjugation to octaarginine provides an approach to transporting antimicrobials and other small molecules to sequestered parasites, a model system to characterize transport across multiple membrane barriers and structures, a widely applicable paradigm for treatment of active and encysted apicomplexan and other infections, and a generic proof of principle for a mechanism of medicine delivery.

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KW - antimicrobials

KW - apicomplexan parasites

KW - triclosan

KW - enoyl-ACP reductase

UR - http://www.pnas.org/

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DO - 10.1073/pnas.2436169100

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T2 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Samuel BU, Hearn B, Mack D, Wender P, Rothbard J, Kirisits MJ et al. Delivery of antimicrobials into parasites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . 2003 Nov 25;100(24):14281-14286. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2436169100