DC fault protection algorithms of MMC HVDC grids: fault analysis, methodologies, experimental validations and future trends

Wang Xiang, Saizhao Yang, Grain Philip Adam, Haobo Zhang, Wenping Zuo, Jinyu Wen

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Abstract

To protect the converters and minimize the interruption of power transmission during DC line faults, it is necessary to detect the faults at ultra-high-speed for the MMC based HVDC grids. This paper reviews the state of the art of DC fault protection methods of MMC HVDC grids, and summarizes the underlying principles of each method. On this basis, this paper analyzes the DC fault characteristics in terms of modal-domain, time-domain and frequency-domain analysis, which direct the protection design of MMC HVDC grids. Four boundary protection categories are classified as well as the review of the protection schemes independent of boundary elements. The advantages and disadvantages of existing fault detection methods are compared, with the aim of articulating the future directions of HVDC protection. Moreover, comprehensive quantitative assessments of three typical fault detection methods discussed above are carried out in a four-terminal MMC HVDC grid, which is modeled in PSCAD. A two-terminal MMC-HVDC prototype is developed to test the effectiveness of these fault detection methods. Finally, the future trends of the protection schemes are discussed and the findings are concluded.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Apr 2021

Keywords

  • DC grid
  • DC fault
  • fault protection
  • HVDC transmission
  • modular multi-level converter
  • renewable energy

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