Customized converter for cost-effective and DC-fault resilient HVDC Grids

D. Vozikis, V. Psaras, F. Alsokhiry, G.P. Adam, Y. Al-Turki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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This paper presents a comprehensive study that aims to establish the meaningful range for the ratios of full- bridge cells to the total number of cells per arm, in which the performance of the mixed cells modular multi-level converter (MC-MMC) can be customized by trading the number of FB cells for high value features such as: resiliency to DC faults, reduced capital costs of DC circuit breakers (DCCBs) and running costs of the semi-conductor, and continued operation. The MC-MMC design for particular ratio of FB cells to total number of cells per arm to achieve tailored features at system level is termed as an customized modular multilevel converter (CMMC). The primary motivation for the CMMC is to facilitate the use of low-cost and relative slow mechanical DC circuit breakers, with fault isolation times in the order of 8 ms to 12.5 ms. With these objectives to be achieved, interruption of power flows across the DC grid and surrounding AC grids must be minimized. It has been found that after certain ratios of FB cells to total cells per arm, the CMMC starts to exhibit current limiting mode, which helps to reduce DCCBs current breaking capacities and extend critical fault clearance times for remote converters from the fault point. Results of the pole-to-ground and pole-to-pole DC faults, semiconductor loss studies, and extended control range indicate that the presented CMMC is promising for future realization of DC grids.
Original languageEnglish
Article number107038
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
Early online date21 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2021


  • HVDC
  • hybrid converter
  • DC faults
  • PQ envelope


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