Current failure mechanisms and treatment methods of hot forging tools (dies) - a review

Ali Akbar Emamverdian, Yu Sun, Chunping Cao, Catalin Pruncu, Yu Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)
411 Downloads (Pure)


This article presents a critical overview of the current failure mechanisms and treatment methods applied to improve the surface integrity of die tools used in hot forging process. The knowledge from this study enables a longer mean times between failures and cost-effective processes. In literature, several independent review works have been developed to provide a conceptual overview of failures and treatment methods. Despite all these efforts, there is still no comprehensive review of failures and improvement methods in a mutual frame to show the current research status for preventing failures in hot forging tools. In the present study, the current failure mechanisms and treatment methods have been presented based on theoretical knowledge and empirical knowledge obtained from the experience of the authors. This paper aims to provide a conceptual perspective of hot forging tool failures, including wear (abrasive wear, adhesive wear, oxidation, and thermal fatigue cracking), mechanical fatigue cracking, and plastic deformation, and the corresponding treatment methods, including surface treatment (nitriding, hybrid procedure, pad welding, beam technology, and mechanical treatment) and coating techniques (CVD, PVD, duplex coating, PACVD, and TRD) which in turn allows to control and potentially extend the life of die tools used in metal forming process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105678
Number of pages18
JournalEngineering Failure Analysis
Early online date11 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2021


  • failure mechanisms
  • hot forging process
  • surface engineering
  • tool durability
  • wear


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