Cost minimization control for electric vehicle car parks with vehicle-to-grid technology

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With coordinated charging and discharging, electric vehicles (EVs) in smart car parks can be used as energy storage systems and a reserve against unexpected outrage. In this work, a modeling and control framework for EVs in a smart car park has been built up, which includes key factors such as the charging and discharging costs, the battery degradation cost, the driving probability, the feed-in tariff (FIT), and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) rebates. Each EVs’ charging and discharging activities are scheduled through an optimization route with the purpose to minimize the car park electricity cost. Results from comprehensive simulation studies demonstrate the potential benefits of V2G for car park systems with multiple EVs subject to vehicle and battery characteristics, FIT and policy support.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)422-433
Number of pages12
JournalSystems Science and Control Engineering
Issue number1
Early online date9 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020


  • electric vehicle
  • demand side cost
  • battery degradation
  • charging and discharging
  • vehicle-to-grid
  • feed-in tariff


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