Cooperative export channel modes in times of uncertainty, a key to born global firms' survival?

Nahid Yazdani, Gregor Pfajfar, John W. Cadogan, ‪Maciej Mitręga‬, Eleni Lioliou, Ruey-Jer "Bryan" Jean, Ian R. Hodgkinson, Eleni (Lenia) Tsougkou, Vicky M. Story, Nathaniel Boso, João S. Oliveira

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Export firms with theory-driven operation modes are shown to have greater performance. Considering the well-established theories in the field, this study incorporates real options reasoning to highlight how different modes of export operation can create value for the firm. Specifically born globals with limited resources, inevitably operating in markets that might not be close to them may benefit by choosing modes that help them to manage uncertainties and reduce the costs of failure. The result of the survey of 187 Chinese born global exporters shows that firms operating in institutionally distanced markets most benefit from cooperative channels when the investment is irreversible, the environment is perceived as highly competitive, and institutional barriers are high. Cooperative operation is a value-creating mechanism, providing the firm with both options to grow/withdraw, when uncertainty resolves favourably/unfavourably, hence contributing to the survival of the firm.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages46
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2023
EventIndustrial Marketing Management Summit 2023: IMM Summit 2023 - Bamberg, Germany
Duration: 19 Jan 202320 Jan 2023


ConferenceIndustrial Marketing Management Summit 2023
Abbreviated titleIMM Summit 2023


  • export operation mode
  • cooperative channels
  • born globals
  • real options reasoning
  • entrepreneurial orientation
  • institutional distance
  • export performance
  • China


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  • Entrepreneurship in the 21st Century

    Tsougkou, E., Cadogan, J. W., Hodgkinson, I. R., Oliveira, J. S., Story, V. M., Boso, N., Lioliou, E., Laukannen, T., Asmat-Nizam Abdul-Talib , A., Jean, R., Beracs, J., Nagy, G., Felzensztein, C., Martínez-López, F. J., Lisboa, A., Bilgin Wührer, Z., Thoumrungroje, A., Schwens, C., Walheiser, D., Ko, E., Sy-Chango, J., Schmitt, J., Souchon, A., Despoudi, S., Eibe Sørensen, H., Yazdani, N., Asikainen, S., Pattana, B., Olie, R., Mitręga‬, ‪. & Pfajfar, G.

    1/10/14 → …

    Project: Research

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