This paper employs an amplitude modulation with sinusoidal plus third harmonic injection instead of trapezoidal modulation to operate a controlled transition bridge (CTB) converter as ac/dc and dc/ac converter terminals. With such an operation, the CTB converter may require small ac filters; thus attractive for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems. To facilitate ac voltage control over a wide range and black-start capability, the injected 3rd harmonic allows the cell capacitor voltages of the CTB converter to be regulated independent of the modulation index and power factor. The insertion of 3rd harmonic into modulating signals achieves two objectives: extends the regions around voltage zeros so that the total voltage unbalanced can be distributed between the cell capacitors, thereby exploiting the bipolar capability of the full-bridge cells in each limb; and to ensure that each limb can be clamped to the positive and negative dc rails every half fundamental period independent of the modulation index to allow recharge of the cell capacitors from the active dc link. The suitability of the CTB converter for HVDC type applications is demonstrated using a two-terminal HVDC link that employs a 21-cell CTB converter, considering normal operation and ac faults.
- high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission system
- two level voltage source converter
- hybrid multilevel converter