Considerations for the technical development of 405nm light for decontamination applications in arthroplasty surgery.

Praveen Ramakrishnan, Michelle MacLean, John Anderson, Scott MacGregor, Jon Clarke, R.M.D. Meek, Mary Grant

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

Abstract

Post-operative infection rates following anthroplasty surgery are reported to be as high as 4%, with this rate increasing if patients undergo revision procedures. These infections cause serious patient discomfort and trauma, and have major financial implications due to the increased treatment costs, therefore improved methods of infection control are being sought. Recent studies have demonstrated the application of microbial 405 nm violet-blue light for continuous environmental decontamination of hospital isolation rooms, and this work discusses the technical elements that would be required for optimisation of this technology for application during anthroplasty surgical procedures.
Laboratory studies were firstly conducted to establish the differential sensitivity of mammalian osteoblast and bacterial cells, with exposure times selected to reflect the duration of routine anthroplasty procedures. Cell viability results demonstrated a crtical dose of 36 J/cm2 (5 mW/cm2 for 2 hours) which was non-detrimental to exposedosteoblasts, but exerted a significant antimicrobial effect - up to 100% reduction - of bacterial pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.Analysis of existing operating theatre lighting was conducted in order to determine its standard optical output, and to investigate how this couldpotentially be altered to provide antimicrobial lighting. Two standard white light sources were tested: a halogen light system, and a light emitting diode system. The spectral output of both sources highlighted the inclusion of 405 nm light in the emission spectra, although at much lower levels than would be required for antimicrobial activity. This study therefore discusses the potential for technical adaptation of existing operating lighting systems and development of new lighting systems which would facilitate 405 nm light decontamination during surgical procedures, thus providing a technology which could potentially be applied as a complementary infection control strategy during surgery.

Conference

ConferenceBritish Orthopaedic Society Conference
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityGlasgow
Period5/09/166/09/16

Fingerprint

Decontamination
Arthroplasty
Lighting
Light
Infection Control
Isolation Hospitals
Viola
Technology
Halogens
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Infection
Osteoblasts
Health Care Costs
Staphylococcus aureus
Cell Survival
Wounds and Injuries

Keywords

  • 405 nm light
  • post-operative infection
  • antibacterial activity
  • anthroplasty
  • environmental decontamination
  • osteoblasts
  • cell viability
  • bacterial pathogens
  • halogen light
  • light emitting diode
  • theatre lighting

Cite this

Ramakrishnan, P., MacLean, M., Anderson, J., MacGregor, S., Clarke, J., Meek, R. M. D., & Grant, M. (2016). Considerations for the technical development of 405nm light for decontamination applications in arthroplasty surgery.. Abstract from British Orthopaedic Society Conference, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
Ramakrishnan, Praveen ; MacLean, Michelle ; Anderson, John ; MacGregor, Scott ; Clarke, Jon ; Meek, R.M.D. ; Grant, Mary. / Considerations for the technical development of 405nm light for decontamination applications in arthroplasty surgery. Abstract from British Orthopaedic Society Conference, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
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title = "Considerations for the technical development of 405nm light for decontamination applications in arthroplasty surgery.",
abstract = "Post-operative infection rates following anthroplasty surgery are reported to be as high as 4{\%}, with this rate increasing if patients undergo revision procedures. These infections cause serious patient discomfort and trauma, and have major financial implications due to the increased treatment costs, therefore improved methods of infection control are being sought. Recent studies have demonstrated the application of microbial 405 nm violet-blue light for continuous environmental decontamination of hospital isolation rooms, and this work discusses the technical elements that would be required for optimisation of this technology for application during anthroplasty surgical procedures.Laboratory studies were firstly conducted to establish the differential sensitivity of mammalian osteoblast and bacterial cells, with exposure times selected to reflect the duration of routine anthroplasty procedures. Cell viability results demonstrated a crtical dose of 36 J/cm2 (5 mW/cm2 for 2 hours) which was non-detrimental to exposedosteoblasts, but exerted a significant antimicrobial effect - up to 100{\%} reduction - of bacterial pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.Analysis of existing operating theatre lighting was conducted in order to determine its standard optical output, and to investigate how this couldpotentially be altered to provide antimicrobial lighting. Two standard white light sources were tested: a halogen light system, and a light emitting diode system. The spectral output of both sources highlighted the inclusion of 405 nm light in the emission spectra, although at much lower levels than would be required for antimicrobial activity. This study therefore discusses the potential for technical adaptation of existing operating lighting systems and development of new lighting systems which would facilitate 405 nm light decontamination during surgical procedures, thus providing a technology which could potentially be applied as a complementary infection control strategy during surgery.",
keywords = "405 nm light, post-operative infection, antibacterial activity, anthroplasty, environmental decontamination, osteoblasts, cell viability, bacterial pathogens, halogen light , light emitting diode, theatre lighting",
author = "Praveen Ramakrishnan and Michelle MacLean and John Anderson and Scott MacGregor and Jon Clarke and R.M.D. Meek and Mary Grant",
year = "2016",
month = "9",
day = "5",
language = "English",
note = "British Orthopaedic Society Conference ; Conference date: 05-09-2016 Through 06-09-2016",

}

Ramakrishnan, P, MacLean, M, Anderson, J, MacGregor, S, Clarke, J, Meek, RMD & Grant, M 2016, 'Considerations for the technical development of 405nm light for decontamination applications in arthroplasty surgery.' British Orthopaedic Society Conference, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 5/09/16 - 6/09/16, .

Considerations for the technical development of 405nm light for decontamination applications in arthroplasty surgery. / Ramakrishnan, Praveen; MacLean, Michelle; Anderson, John; MacGregor, Scott; Clarke, Jon; Meek, R.M.D.; Grant, Mary.

2016. Abstract from British Orthopaedic Society Conference, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

TY - CONF

T1 - Considerations for the technical development of 405nm light for decontamination applications in arthroplasty surgery.

AU - Ramakrishnan, Praveen

AU - MacLean, Michelle

AU - Anderson, John

AU - MacGregor, Scott

AU - Clarke, Jon

AU - Meek, R.M.D.

AU - Grant, Mary

PY - 2016/9/5

Y1 - 2016/9/5

N2 - Post-operative infection rates following anthroplasty surgery are reported to be as high as 4%, with this rate increasing if patients undergo revision procedures. These infections cause serious patient discomfort and trauma, and have major financial implications due to the increased treatment costs, therefore improved methods of infection control are being sought. Recent studies have demonstrated the application of microbial 405 nm violet-blue light for continuous environmental decontamination of hospital isolation rooms, and this work discusses the technical elements that would be required for optimisation of this technology for application during anthroplasty surgical procedures.Laboratory studies were firstly conducted to establish the differential sensitivity of mammalian osteoblast and bacterial cells, with exposure times selected to reflect the duration of routine anthroplasty procedures. Cell viability results demonstrated a crtical dose of 36 J/cm2 (5 mW/cm2 for 2 hours) which was non-detrimental to exposedosteoblasts, but exerted a significant antimicrobial effect - up to 100% reduction - of bacterial pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.Analysis of existing operating theatre lighting was conducted in order to determine its standard optical output, and to investigate how this couldpotentially be altered to provide antimicrobial lighting. Two standard white light sources were tested: a halogen light system, and a light emitting diode system. The spectral output of both sources highlighted the inclusion of 405 nm light in the emission spectra, although at much lower levels than would be required for antimicrobial activity. This study therefore discusses the potential for technical adaptation of existing operating lighting systems and development of new lighting systems which would facilitate 405 nm light decontamination during surgical procedures, thus providing a technology which could potentially be applied as a complementary infection control strategy during surgery.

AB - Post-operative infection rates following anthroplasty surgery are reported to be as high as 4%, with this rate increasing if patients undergo revision procedures. These infections cause serious patient discomfort and trauma, and have major financial implications due to the increased treatment costs, therefore improved methods of infection control are being sought. Recent studies have demonstrated the application of microbial 405 nm violet-blue light for continuous environmental decontamination of hospital isolation rooms, and this work discusses the technical elements that would be required for optimisation of this technology for application during anthroplasty surgical procedures.Laboratory studies were firstly conducted to establish the differential sensitivity of mammalian osteoblast and bacterial cells, with exposure times selected to reflect the duration of routine anthroplasty procedures. Cell viability results demonstrated a crtical dose of 36 J/cm2 (5 mW/cm2 for 2 hours) which was non-detrimental to exposedosteoblasts, but exerted a significant antimicrobial effect - up to 100% reduction - of bacterial pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.Analysis of existing operating theatre lighting was conducted in order to determine its standard optical output, and to investigate how this couldpotentially be altered to provide antimicrobial lighting. Two standard white light sources were tested: a halogen light system, and a light emitting diode system. The spectral output of both sources highlighted the inclusion of 405 nm light in the emission spectra, although at much lower levels than would be required for antimicrobial activity. This study therefore discusses the potential for technical adaptation of existing operating lighting systems and development of new lighting systems which would facilitate 405 nm light decontamination during surgical procedures, thus providing a technology which could potentially be applied as a complementary infection control strategy during surgery.

KW - 405 nm light

KW - post-operative infection

KW - antibacterial activity

KW - anthroplasty

KW - environmental decontamination

KW - osteoblasts

KW - cell viability

KW - bacterial pathogens

KW - halogen light

KW - light emitting diode

KW - theatre lighting

UR - http://congress.boa.ac.uk/belfast-2016/

M3 - Abstract

ER -

Ramakrishnan P, MacLean M, Anderson J, MacGregor S, Clarke J, Meek RMD et al. Considerations for the technical development of 405nm light for decontamination applications in arthroplasty surgery.. 2016. Abstract from British Orthopaedic Society Conference, Glasgow, United Kingdom.