Congenital toxoplasmosis in the Balb/c mouse: prevention of vertical disease transmission and fetal death by vaccination

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Vertical disease transmission only occurs in Balb/c mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii for the first time during pregnancy. This is similar to the situation in humans, where a previous infection with T. gondii tends to give life-long immunity against reinfection and fetal disease transmission. The Balb/c mouse therefore provides a suitable model to study the effectiveness of T. gondii vaccine candidates. A soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAB) preparation was used to vaccinate female Balb/c mice. STAB was inoculated subcutaneously into Balb/c mice in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), or entrapped within non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV). While all inocula induced cellular immunity as measured by parasite-specific spleen cell proliferation in vitro, the highest mean proliferative values were observed in spleens from mice where NISV had been used as the adjuvant and the lowest values were observed where FCA had been used More importantly, cultures from the NISV/STAg vaccinated mice produced significantly more gamma-interferon than the other experimental groups. This vaccine formulation was therefore identified as that most likely to induce protective immunity against toxoplasmosis. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with either NISV/STAg or STAg in PBS 4 and 2 weeks before mating and infected orally with 20 tissue cysts of T. gondii on day 12 of pregnancy. The incidence of fetal infection and death in these mice and non-vaccinated infected darns was compared. Of 84 pups born to 14 non-vaccinated darns 45 were viable, of which 18 were found to be infected on reaching maturity. All 67 of the pups born to the 11 dams vaccinated with STAg/NISV survived into maturity, of which a mere nine were infected. These studies emphasize that, given appropriate antigen and adjuvant preparations for vaccination, sufficient immunity can be generated in Balb/c dams to severely limit the likelihood of T. gondii-induced abortion and congenital disease.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1389-1394
Number of pages6
JournalVaccine
Volume12
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1994

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Congenital Toxoplasmosis
Fetal Death
fetal death
toxoplasmosis
disease transmission
Vaccination
vaccination
Toxoplasma gondii
Surface-Active Agents
mice
Toxoplasma
adjuvants
Immunity
Freund's Adjuvant
immunity
Toxoplasmosis
pups
Vaccines
Spleen
Phosphates

Keywords

  • abortion, veterinary
  • animals
  • cell division
  • female
  • fetal death
  • immunity, cellular
  • infectious disease transmission, vertical
  • interferon-gamma
  • male
  • mice
  • mice, inbred BALB C
  • pregnancy
  • pregnancy complications, parasitic
  • protozoan vaccines
  • t-lymphocytes
  • toxoplasma
  • toxoplasmosis, animal

Cite this

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title = "Congenital toxoplasmosis in the Balb/c mouse: prevention of vertical disease transmission and fetal death by vaccination",
abstract = "Vertical disease transmission only occurs in Balb/c mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii for the first time during pregnancy. This is similar to the situation in humans, where a previous infection with T. gondii tends to give life-long immunity against reinfection and fetal disease transmission. The Balb/c mouse therefore provides a suitable model to study the effectiveness of T. gondii vaccine candidates. A soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAB) preparation was used to vaccinate female Balb/c mice. STAB was inoculated subcutaneously into Balb/c mice in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), or entrapped within non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV). While all inocula induced cellular immunity as measured by parasite-specific spleen cell proliferation in vitro, the highest mean proliferative values were observed in spleens from mice where NISV had been used as the adjuvant and the lowest values were observed where FCA had been used More importantly, cultures from the NISV/STAg vaccinated mice produced significantly more gamma-interferon than the other experimental groups. This vaccine formulation was therefore identified as that most likely to induce protective immunity against toxoplasmosis. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with either NISV/STAg or STAg in PBS 4 and 2 weeks before mating and infected orally with 20 tissue cysts of T. gondii on day 12 of pregnancy. The incidence of fetal infection and death in these mice and non-vaccinated infected darns was compared. Of 84 pups born to 14 non-vaccinated darns 45 were viable, of which 18 were found to be infected on reaching maturity. All 67 of the pups born to the 11 dams vaccinated with STAg/NISV survived into maturity, of which a mere nine were infected. These studies emphasize that, given appropriate antigen and adjuvant preparations for vaccination, sufficient immunity can be generated in Balb/c dams to severely limit the likelihood of T. gondii-induced abortion and congenital disease.",
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author = "Roberts, {C W} and Brewer, {J M} and J Alexander",
year = "1994",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1016/0264-410X(94)90147-3",
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Congenital toxoplasmosis in the Balb/c mouse : prevention of vertical disease transmission and fetal death by vaccination. / Roberts, C W; Brewer, J M; Alexander, J.

In: Vaccine, Vol. 12, No. 15, 11.1994, p. 1389-1394.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Congenital toxoplasmosis in the Balb/c mouse

T2 - Vaccine

AU - Roberts, C W

AU - Brewer, J M

AU - Alexander, J

PY - 1994/11

Y1 - 1994/11

N2 - Vertical disease transmission only occurs in Balb/c mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii for the first time during pregnancy. This is similar to the situation in humans, where a previous infection with T. gondii tends to give life-long immunity against reinfection and fetal disease transmission. The Balb/c mouse therefore provides a suitable model to study the effectiveness of T. gondii vaccine candidates. A soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAB) preparation was used to vaccinate female Balb/c mice. STAB was inoculated subcutaneously into Balb/c mice in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), or entrapped within non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV). While all inocula induced cellular immunity as measured by parasite-specific spleen cell proliferation in vitro, the highest mean proliferative values were observed in spleens from mice where NISV had been used as the adjuvant and the lowest values were observed where FCA had been used More importantly, cultures from the NISV/STAg vaccinated mice produced significantly more gamma-interferon than the other experimental groups. This vaccine formulation was therefore identified as that most likely to induce protective immunity against toxoplasmosis. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with either NISV/STAg or STAg in PBS 4 and 2 weeks before mating and infected orally with 20 tissue cysts of T. gondii on day 12 of pregnancy. The incidence of fetal infection and death in these mice and non-vaccinated infected darns was compared. Of 84 pups born to 14 non-vaccinated darns 45 were viable, of which 18 were found to be infected on reaching maturity. All 67 of the pups born to the 11 dams vaccinated with STAg/NISV survived into maturity, of which a mere nine were infected. These studies emphasize that, given appropriate antigen and adjuvant preparations for vaccination, sufficient immunity can be generated in Balb/c dams to severely limit the likelihood of T. gondii-induced abortion and congenital disease.

AB - Vertical disease transmission only occurs in Balb/c mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii for the first time during pregnancy. This is similar to the situation in humans, where a previous infection with T. gondii tends to give life-long immunity against reinfection and fetal disease transmission. The Balb/c mouse therefore provides a suitable model to study the effectiveness of T. gondii vaccine candidates. A soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAB) preparation was used to vaccinate female Balb/c mice. STAB was inoculated subcutaneously into Balb/c mice in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), or entrapped within non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV). While all inocula induced cellular immunity as measured by parasite-specific spleen cell proliferation in vitro, the highest mean proliferative values were observed in spleens from mice where NISV had been used as the adjuvant and the lowest values were observed where FCA had been used More importantly, cultures from the NISV/STAg vaccinated mice produced significantly more gamma-interferon than the other experimental groups. This vaccine formulation was therefore identified as that most likely to induce protective immunity against toxoplasmosis. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with either NISV/STAg or STAg in PBS 4 and 2 weeks before mating and infected orally with 20 tissue cysts of T. gondii on day 12 of pregnancy. The incidence of fetal infection and death in these mice and non-vaccinated infected darns was compared. Of 84 pups born to 14 non-vaccinated darns 45 were viable, of which 18 were found to be infected on reaching maturity. All 67 of the pups born to the 11 dams vaccinated with STAg/NISV survived into maturity, of which a mere nine were infected. These studies emphasize that, given appropriate antigen and adjuvant preparations for vaccination, sufficient immunity can be generated in Balb/c dams to severely limit the likelihood of T. gondii-induced abortion and congenital disease.

KW - abortion, veterinary

KW - animals

KW - cell division

KW - female

KW - fetal death

KW - immunity, cellular

KW - infectious disease transmission, vertical

KW - interferon-gamma

KW - male

KW - mice

KW - mice, inbred BALB C

KW - pregnancy

KW - pregnancy complications, parasitic

KW - protozoan vaccines

KW - t-lymphocytes

KW - toxoplasma

KW - toxoplasmosis, animal

U2 - 10.1016/0264-410X(94)90147-3

DO - 10.1016/0264-410X(94)90147-3

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 1389

EP - 1394

JO - Vaccine

JF - Vaccine

SN - 0264-410X

IS - 15

ER -