Conformable, stretchable sensor to record bladder wall stretch

Stuart Hannah, Pauline Brige, Aravind Ravichandran, Marc Ramuz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
52 Downloads (Pure)


A soft, conformable, biocompatible strain sensor based on ultra-thin stretchable electronics is reported. The sensor comprises gold thin films patterned on a 50 μm thick polyurethane substrate to produce resistive-based strain sensors for monitoring bladder stretch. The sensor responds linearly as a function of strain from 0 to 50%, with an increasing sensitivity as a function of sensor length. The sensor displays good stability with very little hysteresis when it is subjected to cycling between 0 and a maximum strain of 50%, with the largest deviation between 0 and 50% strain of ∼19% after 100 cycles attributed to the sensor with the longest length (6 mm) because it physically stretches by a greater distance than sensors with a shorter length. “Breaking” tests on the sensor reveal that shorter sensors can withstand higher maximum strains than longer sensors. A biocompatible hydrogel adhesive is used to attach sensors in vitro to the outside wall of a pig’s bladder, and sensor performance is studied with respect to repeated bladder filling and emptying to investigate stretch changes. By monitoring bladder stretch and thus volume noninvasively, the sensor provides a route for developing new treatment options for various urological conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1907–1915
Number of pages9
JournalACS Omega
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jan 2019


  • biosensors
  • electrochemistry
  • hydrogels
  • mechanical properties
  • ployurethanes
  • thin films

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