Conceptual energy and water recovery system for self-sustained nano membrane toilet

Dawid P. Hanak, Athanasios J. Kolios, Tosin Onabanjo, Stuart T. Wagland, Kumar Patchigolla, Beatriz Fidalgo, Vasilije Manovic, Ewan McAdam, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel, Elise Cartmell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

With about 2.4 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation facilities, there is a strong incentive for development of novel sanitation systems to improve the quality of life and reduce mortality. The Nano Membrane Toilet is expected to provide a unique household-scale system that would produce electricity and recover water from human excrement and urine. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of the conceptual energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet designed for a household of ten people and to assess its self-sustainability. A process model of the entire system, including the thermochemical conversion island, a Stirling engine and a water recovery system was developed in Aspen Plus®. The energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet was characterised with the specific net power output of 23.1 Wh/kgsettledsolids and water recovery rate of 13.4 dm3/day in the nominal operating mode. Additionally, if no supernatant was processed, the specific net power output was increased to 69.2 Wh/kgsettledsolids. Such household-scale system would deliver the net power output (1.9–5.8 W). This was found to be enough to charge mobile phones or power clock radios, or provide light for the household using low-voltage LED bulbs.

LanguageEnglish
Pages352-361
Number of pages10
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Volume126
Early online date12 Aug 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2016

Fingerprint

Membranes
Recovery
Sanitation
Water
Stirling engines
Radio receivers
Mobile phones
Light emitting diodes
Sustainable development
Clocks
Electricity
Electric potential

Keywords

  • energy recovery
  • Nano membrane toilet
  • non-sewered sanitary systems
  • process modelling
  • reinvent the toilet challenge
  • thermochemical conversion

Cite this

Hanak, Dawid P. ; Kolios, Athanasios J. ; Onabanjo, Tosin ; Wagland, Stuart T. ; Patchigolla, Kumar ; Fidalgo, Beatriz ; Manovic, Vasilije ; McAdam, Ewan ; Parker, Alison ; Williams, Leon ; Tyrrel, Sean ; Cartmell, Elise. / Conceptual energy and water recovery system for self-sustained nano membrane toilet. In: Energy Conversion and Management. 2016 ; Vol. 126. pp. 352-361.
@article{3d1edea3ad5c42028ee1f251b522864c,
title = "Conceptual energy and water recovery system for self-sustained nano membrane toilet",
abstract = "With about 2.4 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation facilities, there is a strong incentive for development of novel sanitation systems to improve the quality of life and reduce mortality. The Nano Membrane Toilet is expected to provide a unique household-scale system that would produce electricity and recover water from human excrement and urine. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of the conceptual energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet designed for a household of ten people and to assess its self-sustainability. A process model of the entire system, including the thermochemical conversion island, a Stirling engine and a water recovery system was developed in Aspen Plus{\circledR}. The energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet was characterised with the specific net power output of 23.1 Wh/kgsettledsolids and water recovery rate of 13.4 dm3/day in the nominal operating mode. Additionally, if no supernatant was processed, the specific net power output was increased to 69.2 Wh/kgsettledsolids. Such household-scale system would deliver the net power output (1.9–5.8 W). This was found to be enough to charge mobile phones or power clock radios, or provide light for the household using low-voltage LED bulbs.",
keywords = "energy recovery, Nano membrane toilet, non-sewered sanitary systems, process modelling, reinvent the toilet challenge, thermochemical conversion",
author = "Hanak, {Dawid P.} and Kolios, {Athanasios J.} and Tosin Onabanjo and Wagland, {Stuart T.} and Kumar Patchigolla and Beatriz Fidalgo and Vasilije Manovic and Ewan McAdam and Alison Parker and Leon Williams and Sean Tyrrel and Elise Cartmell",
year = "2016",
month = "10",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.enconman.2016.07.083",
language = "English",
volume = "126",
pages = "352--361",
journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
issn = "0196-8904",

}

Hanak, DP, Kolios, AJ, Onabanjo, T, Wagland, ST, Patchigolla, K, Fidalgo, B, Manovic, V, McAdam, E, Parker, A, Williams, L, Tyrrel, S & Cartmell, E 2016, 'Conceptual energy and water recovery system for self-sustained nano membrane toilet' Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 126, pp. 352-361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.07.083

Conceptual energy and water recovery system for self-sustained nano membrane toilet. / Hanak, Dawid P.; Kolios, Athanasios J.; Onabanjo, Tosin; Wagland, Stuart T.; Patchigolla, Kumar; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Manovic, Vasilije; McAdam, Ewan; Parker, Alison; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean; Cartmell, Elise.

In: Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 126, 15.10.2016, p. 352-361.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Conceptual energy and water recovery system for self-sustained nano membrane toilet

AU - Hanak, Dawid P.

AU - Kolios, Athanasios J.

AU - Onabanjo, Tosin

AU - Wagland, Stuart T.

AU - Patchigolla, Kumar

AU - Fidalgo, Beatriz

AU - Manovic, Vasilije

AU - McAdam, Ewan

AU - Parker, Alison

AU - Williams, Leon

AU - Tyrrel, Sean

AU - Cartmell, Elise

PY - 2016/10/15

Y1 - 2016/10/15

N2 - With about 2.4 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation facilities, there is a strong incentive for development of novel sanitation systems to improve the quality of life and reduce mortality. The Nano Membrane Toilet is expected to provide a unique household-scale system that would produce electricity and recover water from human excrement and urine. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of the conceptual energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet designed for a household of ten people and to assess its self-sustainability. A process model of the entire system, including the thermochemical conversion island, a Stirling engine and a water recovery system was developed in Aspen Plus®. The energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet was characterised with the specific net power output of 23.1 Wh/kgsettledsolids and water recovery rate of 13.4 dm3/day in the nominal operating mode. Additionally, if no supernatant was processed, the specific net power output was increased to 69.2 Wh/kgsettledsolids. Such household-scale system would deliver the net power output (1.9–5.8 W). This was found to be enough to charge mobile phones or power clock radios, or provide light for the household using low-voltage LED bulbs.

AB - With about 2.4 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation facilities, there is a strong incentive for development of novel sanitation systems to improve the quality of life and reduce mortality. The Nano Membrane Toilet is expected to provide a unique household-scale system that would produce electricity and recover water from human excrement and urine. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of the conceptual energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet designed for a household of ten people and to assess its self-sustainability. A process model of the entire system, including the thermochemical conversion island, a Stirling engine and a water recovery system was developed in Aspen Plus®. The energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet was characterised with the specific net power output of 23.1 Wh/kgsettledsolids and water recovery rate of 13.4 dm3/day in the nominal operating mode. Additionally, if no supernatant was processed, the specific net power output was increased to 69.2 Wh/kgsettledsolids. Such household-scale system would deliver the net power output (1.9–5.8 W). This was found to be enough to charge mobile phones or power clock radios, or provide light for the household using low-voltage LED bulbs.

KW - energy recovery

KW - Nano membrane toilet

KW - non-sewered sanitary systems

KW - process modelling

KW - reinvent the toilet challenge

KW - thermochemical conversion

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84981502075&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/energy-conversion-and-management

U2 - 10.1016/j.enconman.2016.07.083

DO - 10.1016/j.enconman.2016.07.083

M3 - Article

VL - 126

SP - 352

EP - 361

JO - Energy Conversion and Management

T2 - Energy Conversion and Management

JF - Energy Conversion and Management

SN - 0196-8904

ER -