Comprehensive multivariate correlations between climatic effect, metabolite-profile, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of Brazilian red propolis metabolites during seasonal study

Ticiano Gomes do Nascimento, Rodolfo Elleson dos Santos Arruda, Erika Tayse da Cruz Almeida, José Marcos dos Santos Oliveira, Irinaldo Diniz Basílio-Júnior, Isabel Cristina Celerino de Moraes Porto, Adilson Rodrigues Sabino, Josealdo Tonholo, Alexander Gray, RuAngelie Edrada Ebel, Carol Clements, Tong Zhang, David George Watson

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The standardization of apiceutical products like as propolis extracts has been widely debated worldwide and variations in the propolis chemical composition are still very relevant topics for use-standardized of different propolis-type as medication by much of the world’s population. The present manuscript discuss important issues related to the climate effect and variations in propolis metabolite-profiling changes, antioxidant capacity and variations of the antibacterial activity of the Brazilian red propolis metabolites using comprehensive multivariate correlations. It was observed the increasing of guttiferones concentrations during the intense drought period and drastic decreasing in rainy period. The climate variation induced the high concentration of flavonoids in rainy period with pronounced dropped in some rainy months. The Pearson´s analysis demonstrated correlation between IC50 from DPPH and guttiferones and flavonoids concentrations. The PCA-X and Hotelling T2 test showed outliers during the months with lowest concentrations of formononetin and isoliquiritigenin was observed in antibacterial tests. The PLS-DA, OPLS-DA and VIP analysis demonstrate guttiferone E, guttiferone B, liquiritigenin, naringenin are considered important substances responsible by anti-staphylococcal activity in red propolis composition during the rainy season and drought period, but a synergistic effect with other flavonoids and isoflavonoids are not ruled out.

Original languageEnglish
Article number18293
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 4 Dec 2019


  • antiparasitic agents
  • drug safety
  • metabolomics
  • natural products

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