Complex heterogeneous precipitation in titanium-niobium microalloyed Al-killed HSLA steels-I. (Ti,Nb)(C,N) particles

A.J. Craven, K. He, L.A.J. Garvie, T.N. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

162 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Precipitation in Ti-Nb Al-killed microalloyed HSLA steels (Ti/N weight ratio from 4.4 to 1) was investigated in both the as-rolled and the normalised conditions using analytical electron microscopy including parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). An extensive formation of heterogeneously nucleated complex (Ti,Nb)(C,N) particles down to 10 nm in size was observed. The core of such a complex particle is based on TiN and has a spherical, cubic or cruciform shape. The N/(Ti+Nb) atomic ratio in the core is similar to the average value in the steel whereas the Nb/Ti ratio is much smaller than the average value and not proportional to it. Many of the cores have caps in the form of epitaxial overgrowths based on NbC. Their composition changes from Nb(C,N) to (Nb,Ti)C as the N/Ti ratio decreases. The formation of these complex particles and their detailed morphology are controlled by the processing conditions as well as the overall composition.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3857-3868
Number of pages11
JournalActa Materialia
Volume48
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sep 2000

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Niobium
Steel
Titanium
Electron energy loss spectroscopy
Chemical analysis
Electron microscopy
Processing

Keywords

  • microstructure
  • electron energy loss spectroscopy
  • EELS
  • energy dispersive X-ray analysis
  • EDX
  • microalloyed steels
  • carbides/nitrides

Cite this

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title = "Complex heterogeneous precipitation in titanium-niobium microalloyed Al-killed HSLA steels-I. (Ti,Nb)(C,N) particles",
abstract = "Precipitation in Ti-Nb Al-killed microalloyed HSLA steels (Ti/N weight ratio from 4.4 to 1) was investigated in both the as-rolled and the normalised conditions using analytical electron microscopy including parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). An extensive formation of heterogeneously nucleated complex (Ti,Nb)(C,N) particles down to 10 nm in size was observed. The core of such a complex particle is based on TiN and has a spherical, cubic or cruciform shape. The N/(Ti+Nb) atomic ratio in the core is similar to the average value in the steel whereas the Nb/Ti ratio is much smaller than the average value and not proportional to it. Many of the cores have caps in the form of epitaxial overgrowths based on NbC. Their composition changes from Nb(C,N) to (Nb,Ti)C as the N/Ti ratio decreases. The formation of these complex particles and their detailed morphology are controlled by the processing conditions as well as the overall composition.",
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year = "2000",
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Complex heterogeneous precipitation in titanium-niobium microalloyed Al-killed HSLA steels-I. (Ti,Nb)(C,N) particles. / Craven, A.J.; He, K.; Garvie, L.A.J.; Baker, T.N.

In: Acta Materialia, Vol. 48, No. 15, 25.09.2000, p. 3857-3868.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Complex heterogeneous precipitation in titanium-niobium microalloyed Al-killed HSLA steels-I. (Ti,Nb)(C,N) particles

AU - Craven, A.J.

AU - He, K.

AU - Garvie, L.A.J.

AU - Baker, T.N.

PY - 2000/9/25

Y1 - 2000/9/25

N2 - Precipitation in Ti-Nb Al-killed microalloyed HSLA steels (Ti/N weight ratio from 4.4 to 1) was investigated in both the as-rolled and the normalised conditions using analytical electron microscopy including parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). An extensive formation of heterogeneously nucleated complex (Ti,Nb)(C,N) particles down to 10 nm in size was observed. The core of such a complex particle is based on TiN and has a spherical, cubic or cruciform shape. The N/(Ti+Nb) atomic ratio in the core is similar to the average value in the steel whereas the Nb/Ti ratio is much smaller than the average value and not proportional to it. Many of the cores have caps in the form of epitaxial overgrowths based on NbC. Their composition changes from Nb(C,N) to (Nb,Ti)C as the N/Ti ratio decreases. The formation of these complex particles and their detailed morphology are controlled by the processing conditions as well as the overall composition.

AB - Precipitation in Ti-Nb Al-killed microalloyed HSLA steels (Ti/N weight ratio from 4.4 to 1) was investigated in both the as-rolled and the normalised conditions using analytical electron microscopy including parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). An extensive formation of heterogeneously nucleated complex (Ti,Nb)(C,N) particles down to 10 nm in size was observed. The core of such a complex particle is based on TiN and has a spherical, cubic or cruciform shape. The N/(Ti+Nb) atomic ratio in the core is similar to the average value in the steel whereas the Nb/Ti ratio is much smaller than the average value and not proportional to it. Many of the cores have caps in the form of epitaxial overgrowths based on NbC. Their composition changes from Nb(C,N) to (Nb,Ti)C as the N/Ti ratio decreases. The formation of these complex particles and their detailed morphology are controlled by the processing conditions as well as the overall composition.

KW - microstructure

KW - electron energy loss spectroscopy

KW - EELS

KW - energy dispersive X-ray analysis

KW - EDX

KW - microalloyed steels

KW - carbides/nitrides

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