Comparison of rheological models for determining dark chocolate viscosity

Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


Parameters in chocolate rheology, namely shear viscosity and yield stress, are important in manufacture and directly influenced by product particle size distribution (PSD) and composition. The Casson model was the standard confectionery industry strategy to quantify rheological properties of molten chocolate until in 2000, the International Confectionery Association recommended the use of interpolation data to describe viscosity. The two strategies are compared and correlated in defining rheological properties of molten dark chocolates prepared using different PSD, fat and lecithin content. Rheological parameters were determined using a shear rate-controlled rheometer and data examined using correlation, regression and principal component analyses to establish their inter-relationships. Correlation and regression analyses showed high correlation (r = 0.89-1.00) and regression coefficients (R2 = 0.84-1.00). The newer International Confectionery Association technique gave higher correlation and regression coefficients than the Casson model, but multivariate principal component analysis showed that the two models were highly related and either could effectively quantify dark chocolate viscosity parameters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-167
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Food Science and Technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jul 2008


  • chocolate composition
  • particle size distribution
  • shear viscosity
  • yield stress


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