This paper presents a comparison of contact and immersion waves used to measure residual stresses. The residual stresses are produced due to a dissimilar welding of stainless steel (304) to carbon steel (A106). Longitudinal critically refracted (LCR) wave propagated by 2. MHz contact and immersion ultrasonic transducers is employed to measure the residual stresses. A Finite Element (FE) model of welding process, which is validated by hole-drilling method, is used to verify the ultrasonic results while an acceptable agreement is achieved. The best agreement is observed in the parent material while the maximum difference is measured in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The results show no considerable difference between using contact and immersion transducers in ultrasonic stress measurement of dissimilar joints.
- acoustoelastic constant
- dissimilar welding
- finite element welding simulation
- immersion ultrasonic method
- non-destructive stress measurement
- welding residual stress