Comparing 'challenge-based' and 'code-based' internet voting verification implementations

Oksana Kulyk, Jan Henzel, Karen Renaud, Melanie Volkamer, David Lamas (Editor), Lennart Nacke (Editor), Helen Petrie (Editor), Fernando Loizides (Editor), Marco Winckler (Editor), Panayiotis Zaphiris (Editor)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

1 Citation (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


Internet-enabled voting introduces an element of invisibility and unfamiliarity into the voting process, which makes it very different from traditional voting. Voters might be concerned about their vote being recorded correctly and included in the final tally. To mitigate mistrust, many Internet-enabled voting systems build verifiability into their systems. This allows voters to verify that their votes have been cast as intended, stored as cast and tallied as stored at the conclusion of the voting period. Verification implementations have not been universally successful, mostly due to voter difficulties using them. Here, we evaluate two cast as intended verification approaches in a lab study: (1) "Challenge-Based" and (2) "Code-Based". We assessed cast-as-intended vote verification efficacy, and identified usability issues related to verifying and/or vote casting. We also explored acceptance issues post-verification, to see whether our participants were willing to engage with Internet voting in a real election. Our study revealed the superiority of the code-based approach, in terms of ability to verify effectively. In terms of real-life Internet voting acceptance, convenience encourages acceptance, while security concerns and complexity might lead to rejection.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHuman-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2019
Subtitle of host publication17th IFIP TC 13 International Conference Proceedings, Part I
EditorsDavid Lamas, Fernando Loizides, Lennart Nacke, Helen Petrie, Marco Winckler, Panayiotis Zaphiris
Place of PublicationCham
Number of pages20
ISBN (Print)9783030293802
Publication statusPublished - 29 Aug 2019
Event17th IFIP TC 13 International Conference INTERACT 2019: IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Paphos, Cyprus
Duration: 2 Sep 20196 Sep 2019

Publication series

Name Lecture Notes in Computer Science


Conference17th IFIP TC 13 International Conference INTERACT 2019


  • use study
  • usable security
  • verifiability
  • electronic voting


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