In near infrared fluorescence-guided surgical oncology, it is challenging to distinguish healthy from cancerous tissue. One promising research avenue consists in the analysis of the exogenous fluorophores’ lifetime, which are however in the (sub-)nanosecond range. We have integrated a single-photon pixel array, based on standard CMOS SPADs (single-photon avalanche diodes), in a compact, time-gated measurement system, named FluoCam. In vivo measurements were carried out with indocyanine green (ICG)-modified derivatives targeting the avb3 integrin, initially on a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma injected with ICG conjugated with tetrameric cyclic pentapeptide (ICG􀀀E[c(RGDfK)4]), then on mice carrying tumour xenografts of U87-MG (a human primary glioblastoma cell line) injected with monomeric ICG􀀀c(RGDfK). Measurements on tumor, muscle and tail locations allowed us to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo lifetime measurements with the FluoCam, to determine the characteristic lifetimes (around 500 ps) and subtle lifetime differences between bound and unbound ICG-modified fluorophores (10% level), as well as to estimate the available photon fluxes under realistic conditions.
|Number of pages||18|
|Journal||Biomedical Optics Express|
|Early online date||11 Apr 2016|
|Publication status||Published - 1 May 2016|
- photon counting
- medical imaging
- biological imaging
- fluorescence microscopy
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- Health and Wellbeing
- Biomedical Engineering - Senior Lecturer