Comfortable Sardines: The Balance Between Comfort and Capacity

H. V. C. Howarth, M. J . Griffin, C. Childs, T. Fujiyama, S. G. Hodder

Research output: Book/ReportOther report


This report describes the findings of a feasibility study conducted to review factors influencing the comfort of rail passengers when passenger density is high, including situations where passengers stand during the journey. The state of knowledge of passenger movement and thermal comfort in crowded trains, comfort when standing and walking in a moving environment, and high density seating is summarized. Research is proposed to assist optimisation of the trade-off between passenger density and passenger comfort on trains. The proposed studies take into account comments and suggestions provided by rail industry representatives. The study was one of a portfolio of feasibility studies conducted under the EPSRC-funded RRUK Feasibility Account 'Factor 20 – reducing CO2 emissions from inland transport by a major modal shift to rail' (EP/H024743/1).
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages24
VolumeHFRU 11/21
Publication statusPublished - 12 Apr 2011


  • rail passengers
  • passenger density
  • passenger movement
  • thermal comfort


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