Coding of non-text data

Diane Pennington

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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This chapter overviews the domain of “non-text” data that can be found on social media, such as videos and photographs. It then outlines research methods that can be applied to analysing and coding these non-text documents and their associated texts. These methods include content analysis, document analysis, compositional interpretation, musical analysis, cultural studies, visual sociology, visual anthropology, semiotic analysis, iconography/iconology, discourse analysis, visual social semiotics, and multimodal research. The chapter concludes with a call for future development of methods to continue advancing research in this emerging and essential area of social science.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Sage Handbook of Social Media Research Methods
EditorsLuke Sloan, Anabel Quan-Haase
Place of PublicationLondon
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2017


  • non-text data
  • social media
  • research methods


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