Classification of bijections between 321- and 132-avoiding permutations

Anders Claesson, Sergey Kitaev

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


It is well-known, and was first established by Knuth in 1969, that the number of 321-avoiding permutations is equal to that of 132-avoiding permutations. In the literature one can find many subsequent bijective proofs confirming this fact. It turns out that some of the published bijections can easily be obtained from others. In this paper we describe all bijections we were able to find in the literature and we show how they are related to each other (via ``trivial'' bijections). Thus, we give a comprehensive survey and a systematic analysis of these bijections. We also analyze how many permutation statistics (from a fixed, but large, set of statistics) each of the known bijections preserves, obtaining substantial extensions of known results. We also give a recursive description of the algorithmic bijection given by Richards in 1988 (combined with a bijection by Knuth from 1969). This bijection is equivalent to the celebrated bijection of Simion and Schmidt (1985), as well as to the bijection given by Krattenthaler in 2001, and it respects 11 statistics (the largest number of statistics any of the bijections respect).
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Event20th International Conference on Formal Power Series & Algebraic Combinatorics - Valparaiso, Chile
Duration: 23 Jun 200827 Jun 2008


Conference20th International Conference on Formal Power Series & Algebraic Combinatorics


  • bijection
  • permutation statistics
  • equidistribution
  • pattern avoidance
  • Catalan structures


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