Classical and quantum collective recoil lasing: a tutorial

Nicola Piovella, Angel Tarramera Gisbert, Gordon R. M. Robb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Collective atomic recoil lasing (CARL) is a process during which an ensemble of cold atoms, driven by a far-detuned laser beam, spontaneously organize themselves in periodic structures on the scale of the optical wavelength. The principle was envisaged by R. Bonifacio in 1994 and, ten years later, observed in a series of experiments in Tübingen by C. Zimmermann and colleagues. Here, we review the basic model of CARL in the classical and in the quantum regime.

Original languageEnglish
Article number40
Number of pages21
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2021


  • collective scattering
  • cold atoms
  • superradiance


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