Recent years have seen the rapid growth in the need for sensors throughout all areas of society including environmental sensing, health-care, public safety and manufacturing quality control. To meet this diverse need, sensors have to evolve from specialized and bespoke systems to miniaturized, low-power, low-cost (almost disposable) ubiquitous platforms. A technology that has been developed which gives a route to meet these challenges is the chemicapacitor sensor. To date the commercialization of these sensors has largely been restricted to humidity sensing, but in this review we examine the progress over recent years to expand this sensing technology to a wide range of gases and vapors. From sensors interrogated with laboratory instrumentation, chemicapacitor sensors have evolved into miniaturized units integrated with low power readout electronics that can selectively detect target molecules to ppm and sub-ppm levels within vapor mixtures.
- miniature sensors
- volatile organic chemicals (VOCs)
- stand-alone sensors