Chemical looping combustion using the direct combustion of liquid metal in a gas turbine based cycle

Niall R. McGlashan, Peter R. N. Childs, Andrew L. Heyes

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Abstract

A combined cycle gas-turbine generating power and hydrogen is proposed and evaluated. The cycle embodies chemical looping combustion (CLC) and uses a Na based oxygen carrier. In operation, a stoichiometric excess of liquid Na is injected directly into the combustion chamber of a gas-turbine cycle, where it is burnt in compressed O2 produced in an external air separation unit (ASU). The resulting combustion chamber exit stream consists of hot Na vapor and this is expanded in a turbine. Liquid Na2O oxide is also generated in the combustion process but this can be separated, readily, from the Na vapor and collects in a pool at the bottom of the reactor. To regenerate liquid Na from Na2O, and hence complete the chemical loop, a reduction reactor (the reducer) is fed with three streams: the hot Na2O from the oxidizer, the Na vapor (plus some entrained wetness) exiting a Na-turbine, and a stream of solid fuel, which is assumed to be pure carbon for simplicity. The sensible heat content of the liquid Na2O and latent and sensible heat of the Na vapor provide the heat necessary to drive the endothermic reduction reaction and ensure the reducer is externally adiabatic. The exit gas from the reducer consists of almost pure CO, which can be used to generate byproduct H2 using the water-gas shift reaction. A mass and energy balance of the system is conducted assuming reactions reach equilibrium. The analysis allows for losses associated with turbomachinery; heat exchangers are assumed to operate with a finite approach temperature. However, pressure losses in equipment and pipework are assumed negligible-a reasonable assumption for this type of analysis that will still yield meaningful data. The analysis confirms that the combustion chamber exit temperature is limited by both first and second law considerations to a value suitable for a practical gas-turbine. The analysis also shows that the overall efficiency of the cycle, under optimum conditions and taking into account the work necessary to drive the ASU, can exceed 75%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number031701
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power
Volume133
Issue number3
Early online date10 Nov 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2011

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Keywords

  • capture
  • carbon
  • chemical
  • economy
  • gas-turbine
  • hydrogen
  • looping
  • sodium

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