Chemical etching as a method of combatting adhesive tool wear during severe plastic deformation of commercially-pure titanium

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This paper investigates chemical etching as a potential temporary solution to severe adhesive wear experienced during forming of commercially-pure titanium. The aim was to identify contributing factors and experimentally quantify their effects on the etching of CP-Ti and Vanadis 23 tool steel.

A comprehensive literature review identified a promising etchant solution, containing 6.5% hydrofluoric acid, 2% formic acid and 2% triethanolamine. A full factorial experiment was designed to test the effects of three factors – hydrofluoric acid concentration, temperature, and time – with statistical analysis to interpret and validate the results.

The results confirmed that increasing any of the factors tested leads to a significant increase in titanium dissolution, while only temperature and concentration increases led to a significant increase in steel dissolution. Therefore, a 20°C solution of 3.5% hydrofluoric acid and an etching duration of 35 minutes is recommended for removing adhered titanium without significantly affecting the steel.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Transdisciplinary Engineering
EditorsJames Gao, Mohammed El Souri, Simeon Keates
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)978-1-61499-791-7
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sep 2017
Event15th International Conference on Manufacturing Research - University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom
Duration: 5 Sep 20177 Sep 2017


Conference15th International Conference on Manufacturing Research
CountryUnited Kingdom
Internet address



  • etching
  • pure titanium
  • severe adhesive wear
  • galling
  • hydrofluoric acid
  • tool maintenance

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