Characterization of patients who present with insomnia: is there room for a symptom cluster-based approach?

Megan R. Crawford, Diana A. Chirinos, Toni Iurcotta, Jack D. Edinger, James K. Wyatt, Rachel Manber, Jason C. Ong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Study Objectives: This study examined empirically derived symptom cluster profiles among patients who present with insomnia using clinical data and polysomnography. Methods: Latent profile analysis was used to identify symptom cluster profiles of 175 individuals (63% female) with insomnia disorder based on total scores on validated self-report instruments of daytime and nighttime symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index, Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale), mean values from a 7-day sleep diary (sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency), and total sleep time derived from an in-laboratory PSG. Results: The best-fitting model had three symptom cluster profiles: "High Subjective Wakefulness" (HSW), "Mild Insomnia" (MI) and "Insomnia-Related Distress" (IRD). The HSW symptom cluster profile (26.3% of the sample) reported high wake after sleep onset, high sleep onset latency, and low sleep efficiency. Despite relatively comparable PSG-derived total sleep time, they reported greater levels of daytime sleepiness. The MI symptom cluster profile (45.1%) reported the least disturbance in the sleep diary and questionnaires and had the highest sleep efficiency. The IRD symptom cluster profile (28.6%) reported the highest mean scores on the insomnia-related distress measures (eg, sleep effort and arousal) and waking correlates (fatigue). Covariates associated with symptom cluster membership were older age for the HSW profile, greater obstructive sleep apnea severity for the MI profile, and, when adjusting for obstructive sleep apnea severity, being overweight/obese for the IRD profile. Conclusions: The heterogeneous nature of insomnia disorder is captured by this data-driven approach to identify symptom cluster profiles. The adaptation of a symptom cluster-based approach could guide tailored patient-centered management of patients presenting with insomnia, and enhance patient care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)911-921
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine
Volume13
Issue number7
Early online date15 Jul 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Jul 2017

Keywords

  • insomnia disorder
  • latent profile analysis
  • symptom clusters
  • symptom profile

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