Characterization of large-scale non-uniformities in a 20k TDC/SPAD array integrated in a 130nm CMOS process

C. Veerappan, J. Richardson, R. Walker, D. U. Li, M. W. Fishburn, D. Stoppa, F. Borghetti, Y. Maruyama, M. Gersbach, R. K. Henderson, C. Bruschini, E. Charbon

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

16 Citations (Scopus)


With the emergence of large arrays of high-functionality pixels, it has become critical to characterize the performance non-uniformity of such arrays. In this paper we characterize a 160×128 array of complex pixels, each with a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) and a time-to-digital converter (TDC). A study of the array's non-uniformities in terms of the timing resolution, jitter, and photon responsivity is conducted for the pixels at various illumination levels, temperatures, and other operating conditions. In the study we found that, in photon-starved operation, the TDCs exhibit a median resolution of 55ps and a standard deviation of 2 ps. The pixels show a median timing jitter of 140ps. Moreover, we measured negligible variations in photon responsivity while changing the number of active pixels. These findings suggest that the image sensor can be used in highly reliable, large-scale, time-correlated measurements of single photons for biological, molecular, and medical applications. The chip is especially valuable for time-resolved imaging, single-photon counting, and correlation-spectroscopy under many realistic operating conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSolid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC), 2011 Proceedings of the European
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781457707063
ISBN (Print)9781457707070
Publication statusPublished - 12 Sept 2011
Event41st European Solid State Device Research Conference - Finlandia Hall, Helsinki, Finland
Duration: 12 Sept 201116 Sept 2011

Publication series

ISSN (Print)1930-8876


Conference41st European Solid State Device Research Conference
Abbreviated titleESSDERC 2011
Internet address


  • timing jitter
  • avalanche diodes
  • CMOS image sensors
  • convertors
  • image resolution
  • imaging
  • timimg
  • arrays
  • noise


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