Characterization of flow dynamics in the pulmonary bifurcation of patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot: a computational approach

Maria Boumpouli, Emilie L. Sauvage, Claudio Capelli, Silvia Schievano, Asimina Kazakidi

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The hemodynamic environment of the pulmonary bifurcation is of great importance for adult patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) due to possible complications in the pulmonary valve and narrowing of the left pulmonary artery (LPA). The aim of this study was to computationally investigate the effect of geometrical variability and flow split on blood flow characteristics in the pulmonary trunk of patient-specific models. Data from a cohort of seven patients was used retrospectively and the pulmonary hemodynamics was investigated using averaged and MRI-derived patient-specific boundary conditions on the individualized models, as well as a statistical mean geometry. Geometrical analysis showed that curvature and tortuosity are higher in the LPA branch, compared to the right pulmonary artery (RPA), resulting in complex flow patterns in the LPA. The computational analysis also demonstrated high time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) at the outer wall of the LPA and the wall of the RPA proximal to the junction. Similar TAWSS patterns were observed for averaged boundary conditions, except for a significantly modified flow split assigned at the outlets. Overall, this study enhances our understanding about the flow development in the pulmonary bifurcation of rTOF patients and associates some morphological characteristics with hemodynamic parameters, highlighting the importance of patient-specificity in the models. To confirm these findings, further studies are required with a bigger cohort of patients.
Original languageEnglish
Article number703717
Pages (from-to)703717
Number of pages20
JournalFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Early online date30 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2021


  • hemodynamics
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
  • congential heart disease
  • tetralogy of Fallot
  • pulmonary bifurcation


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