Characterization of condensed phase species produced during the thermal treatment of metal chlorides on a graphite platform using surface analysis techniques

M A Castro, K Faulds, W E Smith, A J Allers, D Littlejohn

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Abstract

The identification and distribution of condensed phase species produced on a graphite platform at temperatures between 200 and 2000 degreesC was studied using data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive (ED) X-ray spectrometry and Raman microanalysis. The first general conclusion is that there is no unique path in the thermal transformation of the metal chlorides tested, even for a particular metal chloride. Sodium, potassium and calcium chlorides showed similar vaporization characteristics, evolving mainly as monochlorides, while magnesium, beryllium and aluminium mainly vaporized as free atoms, following transformation caused by hydrolysis. The replacement of chlorine atoms by oxygen occurred at lower temperatures for beryllium and aluminium chlorides than for magnesium chloride. There were some particular areas on the platform surface where other mechanisms, such as hydrolysis of calcium chloride and dissociation of sodium chloride in the condensed phase, seemed occasionally to occur to a minor extent. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1935-1942
Number of pages8
JournalSpectrochimica Acta Part B-Atomic Spectroscopy
Volume59
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2004

Fingerprint

calcium chlorides
Calcium Chloride
Calcium chloride
Graphite
Beryllium
Surface analysis
sodium chlorides
Sodium Chloride
beryllium chlorides
Magnesium
hydrolysis
Chlorides
Hydrolysis
platforms
graphite
Metals
chlorides
Heat treatment
magnesium chlorides
aluminum chlorides

Keywords

  • electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry
  • chloride interferences
  • condensed phase
  • scanning electron microscopy
  • energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
  • Raman spectrometry
  • electrothermal vaporization
  • plasma mass spectometry

Cite this

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title = "Characterization of condensed phase species produced during the thermal treatment of metal chlorides on a graphite platform using surface analysis techniques",
abstract = "The identification and distribution of condensed phase species produced on a graphite platform at temperatures between 200 and 2000 degreesC was studied using data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive (ED) X-ray spectrometry and Raman microanalysis. The first general conclusion is that there is no unique path in the thermal transformation of the metal chlorides tested, even for a particular metal chloride. Sodium, potassium and calcium chlorides showed similar vaporization characteristics, evolving mainly as monochlorides, while magnesium, beryllium and aluminium mainly vaporized as free atoms, following transformation caused by hydrolysis. The replacement of chlorine atoms by oxygen occurred at lower temperatures for beryllium and aluminium chlorides than for magnesium chloride. There were some particular areas on the platform surface where other mechanisms, such as hydrolysis of calcium chloride and dissociation of sodium chloride in the condensed phase, seemed occasionally to occur to a minor extent. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, chloride interferences, condensed phase, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, electrothermal vaporization, plasma mass spectometry",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of condensed phase species produced during the thermal treatment of metal chlorides on a graphite platform using surface analysis techniques

AU - Castro, M A

AU - Faulds, K

AU - Smith, W E

AU - Allers, A J

AU - Littlejohn, D

PY - 2004/12/1

Y1 - 2004/12/1

N2 - The identification and distribution of condensed phase species produced on a graphite platform at temperatures between 200 and 2000 degreesC was studied using data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive (ED) X-ray spectrometry and Raman microanalysis. The first general conclusion is that there is no unique path in the thermal transformation of the metal chlorides tested, even for a particular metal chloride. Sodium, potassium and calcium chlorides showed similar vaporization characteristics, evolving mainly as monochlorides, while magnesium, beryllium and aluminium mainly vaporized as free atoms, following transformation caused by hydrolysis. The replacement of chlorine atoms by oxygen occurred at lower temperatures for beryllium and aluminium chlorides than for magnesium chloride. There were some particular areas on the platform surface where other mechanisms, such as hydrolysis of calcium chloride and dissociation of sodium chloride in the condensed phase, seemed occasionally to occur to a minor extent. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - The identification and distribution of condensed phase species produced on a graphite platform at temperatures between 200 and 2000 degreesC was studied using data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive (ED) X-ray spectrometry and Raman microanalysis. The first general conclusion is that there is no unique path in the thermal transformation of the metal chlorides tested, even for a particular metal chloride. Sodium, potassium and calcium chlorides showed similar vaporization characteristics, evolving mainly as monochlorides, while magnesium, beryllium and aluminium mainly vaporized as free atoms, following transformation caused by hydrolysis. The replacement of chlorine atoms by oxygen occurred at lower temperatures for beryllium and aluminium chlorides than for magnesium chloride. There were some particular areas on the platform surface where other mechanisms, such as hydrolysis of calcium chloride and dissociation of sodium chloride in the condensed phase, seemed occasionally to occur to a minor extent. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KW - electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

KW - chloride interferences

KW - condensed phase

KW - scanning electron microscopy

KW - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

KW - Raman spectrometry

KW - electrothermal vaporization

KW - plasma mass spectometry

U2 - 10.1016/j.sab.2004.09.008

DO - 10.1016/j.sab.2004.09.008

M3 - Article

VL - 59

SP - 1935

EP - 1942

JO - Spectrochimica Acta Part B-Atomic Spectroscopy

T2 - Spectrochimica Acta Part B-Atomic Spectroscopy

JF - Spectrochimica Acta Part B-Atomic Spectroscopy

SN - 0584-8547

IS - 12

ER -