CFD based form factor determination method

Kadir Burak Korkmaz, Sofia Werner, Nobuaki Sakamoto, Patrick Queutey, Ganbo Deng, Gao Yuling, Dong Guoxiang, Kevin Maki, Haixuan Ye, Ayhan Akinturk, Tanvir Sayeed, Takanori Hino, Feng Zhao, Tahsin Tezdogan, Yigit Kemal Demirel, Rickard Bensow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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The 1978 ITTC Power Prediction method is used to predict the propulsive power of ships through towing tank testing. The form factor approach and its determination in this method have been questioned. This paper investigates the possibility to improve the power predictions by introducing Combined CFD/EFD Method where the experimental determination of form factor is replaced by double body RANS computations applied for open cases KVLCC2 and KCS, including first-time published towing tank tests of KVLCC2 at ballast condition including an experimental uncertainty analysis specifically derived for the formfactor. Computations from nine organisations and seven CFD codes are compared to the experiments. The form factor predictions for both hulls in design loading condition compared well with the experimental results in general. For the KVLCC2 ballast condition, majority of the form factors were under-predicted while staying within the experimental uncertainty. Speed dependency is
observed with the application of ITTC57 line but it is reduced with the Katsui line and nearly eliminated by numerical friction lines. Comparison of the full-scale viscous resistance predictions obtained by the extrapolations from model scale and direct full-scale computations show that the Combined CFD/EFD Method show significantly less scatter and may thus be a preferred approach.
Original languageEnglish
Article number108451
JournalOcean Engineering
Early online date12 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2021


  • ship resistance
  • form factor
  • CFD
  • scale effects
  • combined CFD/EFD methods
  • experimental uncertainty analysis


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