CFD analysis of the effect of heterogeneous hull roughness on ship resistance

Roberto Ravenna, Soonseok Song, Weichao Shi, Tonio Sant, Claire De Marco Muscat-Fenech, Yigit Kemal Demirel

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Hull roughness increases ship resistance, power, and fuel consumption significantly. Recent studies have demonstrated that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can accurately predict the effect of roughness on ship resistance by using a modified wall-function approach. Although hull roughness is often spatially heterogeneous, little research has been carried out on the heterogeneous roughness effect on ship resistance.

Therefore, this study aims to investigate the heterogeneous roughness effect on ship resistance using CFD. A series of CFD simulations were conducted on a scaled model of the KRISO Container Ship (KSC) hull. Various surface coverage conditions were considered, including homogeneous (i.e., smooth, and full-rough conditions) and heterogeneous conditions (i.e., different smooth/rough wetted surface ratios).

The present findings showed that increased roughness on the fore hull regions has a greater impact on ship resistance than the rough aft-hull regions. The introduction of a so-called roughness impact factor correlated the added resistance of the heterogeneous roughness scenarios to the corresponding rough wetted surface area. Accordingly, the rough fore-hull scenarios presented higher roughness impact factors than the rough aft-hull cases.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Ship and Marine Technology (GMO-SHIPMAR-2021)
EditorsAhmet Dursun, Hasan Ӧlmez, Yiğit Kemal Demirel
Place of PublicationIstanbul
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9786050107135
Publication statusPublished - 16 Sept 2021
Event2nd International Conference on Ship and Marine Technology - Istanbul, Turkey
Duration: 16 Sept 202117 Sept 2021


Conference2nd International Conference on Ship and Marine Technology
Abbreviated titleGMO-SHIPMAR 2021
Internet address


  • roughness effect
  • heterogeneous roughness
  • ship resistance
  • computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
  • KRISO container ship (KCS)


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