Can type-1 responses against intracellular pathogens be T helper 2 cytokine dependent?

J. Alexander, Emma McFarlane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


While control of intracellular pathogens, such as the protozoan Leishmania, is dependent on the generation of type-1 immune responses, the role of T helper 2 cytokines in the disease process is more controversial. Traditionally these cytokines were perceived as counter-regulating type-1 responses and promoting disease exacerbation. Nevertheless a substantial body of evidence now exists suggesting that the development of effective type-1 immunity can involve the significant involvement of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. This article reviews, using Leishmania species in particular, the circumstances under which these cytokines can promote protective type-1 immunity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)953-959
Number of pages6
JournalMicrobes and Infection
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2008


  • th1
  • th2
  • il-4
  • il-13
  • leishmania
  • intracellular pathogens
  • pharmacology

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