Calibration-free WMS using a cw-DFB-QCL, a VCSEL, and an edge-emitting DFB laser with in-situ real-time laser parameter characterization

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Abstract

This paper presents a detailed experimental wavelength modulation spectroscopy approach and demonstrates its applicability to various types of semiconductor lasers in the near infrared and mid-infrared. A 5250 nm continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser, a 2004 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser, and a 1650 nm distributed feedback edge-emitting laser are used to extract the concentration and pressure values of nitric oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, respectively, using the 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique under controlled conditions. The generality of the technique is demonstrated by extending it to 3f WMS for the three different kinds of lasers used in this study. The methodology required to provide in-situ real-time measurements of both gas parameters and operating characteristics of the laser are described in detail. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed in view of the fact that the characteristic behavior of the laser sources is significantly different. We specifically discuss the issue of targeting non-absorbing wavelength regions and the choice of modulation frequency and modulation amplitude of the laser, as well as the choice of the detection harmonic.
LanguageEnglish
Article number6801217
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Volume9
Issue number2
Early online date18 Jan 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2017

Fingerprint

Distributed feedback lasers
Surface emitting lasers
Modulation
Spectroscopy
Calibration
modulation
Wavelength
Lasers
wavelengths
spectroscopy
lasers
Infrared radiation
Feedback
Quantum cascade lasers
Amplitude modulation
Nitric oxide
quantum cascade lasers
distributed feedback lasers
Frequency modulation
nitric oxide

Keywords

  • harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy
  • calibration-free
  • semiconductor lasers
  • laser spectroscopy
  • harmonic detection
  • modulation frequency
  • modulation amplitude

Cite this

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title = "Calibration-free WMS using a cw-DFB-QCL, a VCSEL, and an edge-emitting DFB laser with in-situ real-time laser parameter characterization",
abstract = "This paper presents a detailed experimental wavelength modulation spectroscopy approach and demonstrates its applicability to various types of semiconductor lasers in the near infrared and mid-infrared. A 5250 nm continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser, a 2004 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser, and a 1650 nm distributed feedback edge-emitting laser are used to extract the concentration and pressure values of nitric oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, respectively, using the 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique under controlled conditions. The generality of the technique is demonstrated by extending it to 3f WMS for the three different kinds of lasers used in this study. The methodology required to provide in-situ real-time measurements of both gas parameters and operating characteristics of the laser are described in detail. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed in view of the fact that the characteristic behavior of the laser sources is significantly different. We specifically discuss the issue of targeting non-absorbing wavelength regions and the choice of modulation frequency and modulation amplitude of the laser, as well as the choice of the detection harmonic.",
keywords = "harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy, calibration-free, semiconductor lasers, laser spectroscopy, harmonic detection, modulation frequency, modulation amplitude",
author = "Abhishek Upadhyay and David Wilson and Michael Lengden and Chakraborty, {Arup L.} and George Stewart and Walter Johnstone",
year = "2017",
month = "4",
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doi = "10.1109/JPHOT.2017.2655141",
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T1 - Calibration-free WMS using a cw-DFB-QCL, a VCSEL, and an edge-emitting DFB laser with in-situ real-time laser parameter characterization

AU - Upadhyay, Abhishek

AU - Wilson, David

AU - Lengden, Michael

AU - Chakraborty, Arup L.

AU - Stewart, George

AU - Johnstone, Walter

PY - 2017/4/30

Y1 - 2017/4/30

N2 - This paper presents a detailed experimental wavelength modulation spectroscopy approach and demonstrates its applicability to various types of semiconductor lasers in the near infrared and mid-infrared. A 5250 nm continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser, a 2004 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser, and a 1650 nm distributed feedback edge-emitting laser are used to extract the concentration and pressure values of nitric oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, respectively, using the 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique under controlled conditions. The generality of the technique is demonstrated by extending it to 3f WMS for the three different kinds of lasers used in this study. The methodology required to provide in-situ real-time measurements of both gas parameters and operating characteristics of the laser are described in detail. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed in view of the fact that the characteristic behavior of the laser sources is significantly different. We specifically discuss the issue of targeting non-absorbing wavelength regions and the choice of modulation frequency and modulation amplitude of the laser, as well as the choice of the detection harmonic.

AB - This paper presents a detailed experimental wavelength modulation spectroscopy approach and demonstrates its applicability to various types of semiconductor lasers in the near infrared and mid-infrared. A 5250 nm continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser, a 2004 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser, and a 1650 nm distributed feedback edge-emitting laser are used to extract the concentration and pressure values of nitric oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, respectively, using the 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique under controlled conditions. The generality of the technique is demonstrated by extending it to 3f WMS for the three different kinds of lasers used in this study. The methodology required to provide in-situ real-time measurements of both gas parameters and operating characteristics of the laser are described in detail. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed in view of the fact that the characteristic behavior of the laser sources is significantly different. We specifically discuss the issue of targeting non-absorbing wavelength regions and the choice of modulation frequency and modulation amplitude of the laser, as well as the choice of the detection harmonic.

KW - harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy

KW - calibration-free

KW - semiconductor lasers

KW - laser spectroscopy

KW - harmonic detection

KW - modulation frequency

KW - modulation amplitude

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