Bubble formation at two adjacent submerged orifices in inviscid fluids

Bashir H. Arebi, W. Dempster

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A theoretical model has been developed as an extension of single orifice bubble formation to investigate the growth and detachment of vapor/gas bubbles formed at two adjacent submerged orifices in inviscid fluids. The mathematical model treats the two bubbles as an expanding control volume moving to the line of centers above a wall. The movement of the bubbles is obtained by application of force balance acting on the bubble and accounts for surface tension, buoyancy, steam momentum and liquid inertia effects. The liquid inertia effects are determined by applying inviscid and irrotational flow assumptions to allow potential flow theory to calculate the liquid velocity field which then allows the pressure distribution to be calculated. The model is extended to include the mass and energy equations to model the steam bubble formation in sub-cooled water. The theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data of bubble formation during constant mass flow steam bubble formation at two submerged upward facing orifices in sub-cooled water. The model was validated by available experimental data for the growth and detachment processes of two adjacent 1 mm orifices at system pressures of 2 and 3 bars, flow rates of 1.2-4 g/min at sub-cooling of 3.5-35 ºC. The comparisons of theory and experiments indicate that the model successfully predicts the bubbles growth and detachment for the range of conditions studied.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-48
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Engineering Research
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2008


  • bubble formation and detachment
  • multiple orifices
  • submerged orifices


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